Thursday, August 20

Booted eagle

   ›      ›   Booted eagle - Hieraaetus pennatus.

The booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These booted eagle species are distributed in Africa, Indian subcontinent, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Taxonomy of Booted eagle

  • Scientific Name: Hieraaetus pennatus
  • Common Name: Booted eagle
  • French: Aigle botté; German: Zwergadler; Spanish: Águila calzada;
  • Other names: Falco pennatus J. F. Gmelin, 1788; Aquila minuta Brehm, 1831; Aquila pennata;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Gmelin, 1788)
Hieraaetus pennatus is closely related to H. morphnoides, H. weiskei and H. ayresii. It was earlier included in the genus Falco.

Birds of India - Picture of Booted eagle - Hieraaetus pennatus
Birds of India - Picture of Booted eagle - Hieraaetus pennatus

Description

The booted eagle is a medium sized eagle, measuring 40 to 50 cm in length and weighing 500 to 750 grams. The female eagles are larger and weigh 850 to 1,250 grams. The wingspan is 110 to 140 cm. There are two distinct color morphs, with several intermediate plumages. The pale morphs are mainly light grey. They have a darker head and flight feathers. The dark morphs have dark brown plumage with dark greyish flight feathers. The call is a shrill kli-kli-kli sound.

Habitat

The booted eagle species inhabit forests with some open areas and hilly country side.

Feeding habits

The booted eagle feed on small birds, reptiles and small mammals like mice and susliks. They have been found to hunt preys five times their weight.

Breeding

The booted eagle breeding season is from April to May. Nest is built with sticks and twigs on the forest trees. These eagle species lay one or two eggs.

Distribution

These eagle species are distributed in Europe, Africa and Asia. Breeding populations are found in southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East, northern Indian Subcontinent and across Asia. Wintering populations are seen in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and southern Indian subcontinent.

Movement Patterns

The booted eagle species are mainly migratory. They leave their breeding grounds in September for wintering and return in March and April.

Status and conservation

The booted eagle species have an extremely large range and population. They are considered least vulnerable. Habitat destruction, human activities near the breeding grounds, persecution and wind turbines are the major threats to the survival of these species of birds.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Hieraaetus pennatus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Hieraaetus
Species:H. pennatus
Binomial name:Hieraaetus pennatus
Distribution:North Africa, Indian subcontinent, Europe, the Middle East, Asia;
Feeding habits:birds, reptiles and small mammals;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

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Wednesday, August 19

Bonelli's eagle

   ›      ›   Bonelli's eagle - Aquila fasciata.

The Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These Bonelli's eagle species are distributed in Africa, Indian subcontinent, Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Indochina, Southeast China and Indonesia.

Taxonomy of Bonelli's eagle

  • Scientific Name: Aquila fasciata
  • Common Name: Bonelli's eagle
  • French: Aigle de Bonelli; German: Habichtsadler; Spanish: Águila perdicera;
  • Other names: Hieraaetus fasciatus; Aquila fasciatus;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Vieillot, 1822)
Aquila fasciata is closely related to A. spilogaster and A. verreauxii. It was earlier included in the genus Hieraaetus. The two recognized subspecies are: A. f. fasciata Vieillot, 1822 and A. f. renschi (Stresemann, 1932).

Birds of India - Picture of Bonelli's eagle - Aquila fasciata
Birds of India - Picture of Bonelli's eagle - Aquila fasciata

Description

The Bonelli's eagle is a medium sized bird of prey, measuring 65 to 70 cm in length and weighing 1,600 to 2,400 grams. The wingspan is 150 to 170 cm. The upper parts are dark brown, whereas the underside is white with dark streaks. The eyes and feet of the eagle are yellow. The wings are relatively short and rounded. The tail is long and is grey on the upper side and white below. There is a broad terminal black band on the tail. The call is a shrill 'klu-kluklu-kluee' sound.

Habitat

The Bonelli's eagle inhabits forest edges, cultivated land with large trees on the fringe, hilly areas and open country with some tree cover.

Feeding habits

The Bonelli's eagle feeds on medium sized birds and mammals. It also takes reptiles, frogs, insects and rarely, carrion.

Breeding

The Bonelli's eagle breeding season is from November to September in India. The nest is built with sticks and twigs on a remote cliff ledge or in a large tree. It lays 1-3 eggs.

Distribution

The Bonelli's eagle subspecies A. f. fasciata is distributed in Africa, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Arabia, Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent, North Indochina and Southeast China. The eagle subspecies A. f. renschi is distributed in Indonesia.

Movement Patterns

The Bonelli's eagle is mostly sedentary and the juveniles birds disperse around the range.

Status and conservation

The Bonelli's eagle species have a very large range and are considered least vulnerable. However there is steady decline in the eagle populations. The decline in the prey population, human activities in the habitat, habitat degradation, use of pesticides, persecution and collisions with power lines are the major threats to the survival of these species of eagles.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Aquila fasciata
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Aquila
Species:A. fasciata
Binomial name:Aquila fasciata
Distribution:Africa, Indian subcontinent, Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Indochina, South China, Indonesia;
Feeding habits:birds and small mammals;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

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Tuesday, August 18

Golden eagle

   ›      ›   Golden eagle - Aquila chrysaetos.

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) belongs to the family Accipitridae.

These golden eagle species are distributed in Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, North America and the Middle East.

Taxonomy of Golden eagle

  • Scientific Name: Aquila chrysaetos
  • Common Name: Golden eagle
  • French: Aigle royal; German: Steinadler; Spanish: Águila real;
  • Other names: Falco Chrysaëtos Linnaeus, 1758;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Aquila chrysaetos is closely related to A. audax and A. gurneyi. It was earler included in the genus Falco. The six recognized subspecies are: A. c. chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758), A. c. homeyeri Severtsov, 1888, A. c. daphanea Severtsov, 1888, A. c. kamtschatica Severtsov, 1888, A. c. japonica Severtsov, 1888 and A. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758).

Description

The golden eagle is a large bird of prey, male bird measuring 75 to 90 cm in length and weighing 2,800 to 4,500 grams. The female eagle is larger than the male and weighs 3,600 to 6,600 grams. The wingspan is 190 to 230 cm. These eagle species generally have dark brown plumage. The back of the crown and nape region usually has golden-brown plumage. The bill is dark at the tip, fading into lighter horn color. The bare portion of the feet are yellow. Their call is a high, shrill sound.

Birds of India - Image of Golden eagle - Aquila chrysaetos
Birds of India - Image of Golden eagle - Aquila chrysaetos

Habitat

The golden eagle inhabits various habitats like mountains, marshes, deserts, semi-deserts, plateaux, plains and steppe.

Feeding habits

The golden eagle species feed on birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians and medium sized mammals like rodents, rabbits and hares.

Breeding

The golden eagle breeding season depends upon the range and is usually from March to August. These eagle species nest on cliffs and large trees. The nest is a large platform, built with sticks and twigs.

Distribution

The golden eagle subspecies A. c. chrysaetos is distributed in Europe and Siberia. The subspecies A. c. homeyeri is distributed in North Africa, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Arabia, Iran and Uzbekistan. The subspecies A. c. daphanea is distributed in Central Asia, Central China and north Indian subcontinent. The golden eagle subspecies A. c. kamtschatica is distributed in Siberia and East Russia. The subspecies A. c. japonica is distributed in Japan and Korea. The subspecies A. c. canadensis is distributed in North America.

Movement Patterns

The golden eagle species are mostly sedentary. The eagle populations in the northern regions may move southwards in search of feed in the winter.

Status and conservation

The golden eagle global population is estimated to number more than 170,000 birds. These species have an extremely large range and are considered least vulnerable. Poisoning, persecution, trapping, loss of habitat, use of certain pesticides, electrocution from power lines, collision with the wind turbines and long term changes in food supply are the major threats to the survival of these eagle species.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Aquila chrysaetos
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Aquila
Species:A. chrysaetos
Binomial name:Aquila chrysaetos
Distribution:Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East, North America;
Feeding habits:birds and medium sized mammals;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

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Saturday, August 15

Eastern imperial eagle

   ›      ›   Eastern imperial eagle - Aquila heliaca.

The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These eastern imperial eagle species are distributed in Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

Taxonomy of Eastern imperial eagle

  • Scientific Name: Aquila heliaca
  • Common Name: Eastern imperial eagle
  • French: Aigle impérial; German: Kaiseradler; Spanish: Águila imperial oriental;
  • Other names: Aquila heliaca heliaca;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: Savigny, 1809
Aquila heliaca is closely related to A. rapax and A. nipalensis and A. adalberti.

Birds of India - Image of Eastern imperial eagle - Aquila heliaca
Birds of India - Image of Eastern imperial eagle - Aquila heliaca

Description

The eastern imperial eagle is a large bird of prey, measuring 70 to 85 cm in length and weighing 2,400 to 2,700 grams. The female eagle is much larger than the male and weighs 3,100 to 4,500 grams. The wingspan is 180 to 210 cm. It is generally dark brown in color. The crown, nape, sides of head and neck have pale buff color. Its call is a repeated barking sound.

Habitat

These eagle species inhabit open country with small woods.

Feeding habits

The eastern imperial eagle feeds on birds and small mammals.

Breeding

These eagle species breed on old isolated trees in open country. The nest is built with sticks and twigs. The breeding season in March and april. Two to three eggs are laid. The parents take part in raising the chicks.

Distribution

The eastern imperial eagle is distributed in east Europe, central and western Asian countries, Middle East, the Arabian peninsula, Afghanistan, Indian Subcontinent, east Africa, China, Mongolia and Southeast Asia.

Movement Patterns

These eagle species move southwards to east Africa, Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia for wintering.

Status and conservation

The eastern imperial eagle global population is about 10,000 birds and there is steady decline in the population. These species of birds are considered vulnerable. Persecution, poisoning, presence of threats at breeding sites and habitat loss are the threats to the survival of these bird species.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as "Vulnerable".

Biological classification of Aquila heliaca
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Aquila
Species:A. heliaca
Binomial name:Aquila heliaca
Distribution:Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia;
Feeding habits:birds and small mammals;
IUCN status listing:
Vulnerable

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Friday, August 14

Steppe eagle

   ›      ›   Steppe eagle - Aquila nipalensis.

The steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These steppe eagle species are distributed in Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa and the Middle East.

Taxonomy of Steppe eagle

  • Scientific Name: Aquila nipalensis
  • Common Name: Steppe eagle
  • French: Aigle des steppes; German: Steppenadler; Spanish: Águila esteparia;
  • Other names: Aquila rapax nipalensis;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Hodgson, 1833)
Aquila nipalensis is closely related to A. rapax, A. heliaca and A. adalberti. The two recognized subspecies are: A. n. orientalis Cabanis, 1854 and A. n. nipalensis Hodgson, 1833.

Birds of India - Image of Steppe eagle - Aquila nipalensis
Birds of India - Image of Steppe eagle - Aquila nipalensis

Description

The steppe eagle is a large bird of prey, measuring 70 to 80 cm in length and weighing 2,400 to 4,000 grams. The wingspan is 160 to 200 cm. The female eagle is slightly larger than the male. It has brown upperparts. The flight feathers and tail are blackish. The gape extends beyond the centre of the eye. The nostril is oval. The call of the steppe eagle sounds like a crow barking.

Habitat

These eagle species inhabit open dry habitats, such as desert, semi-desert, steppes and savannah.

Feeding habits

The steppe eagle feeds on small birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs. They also feed on fresh carrion of all kinds. They are also known to steal feed from other birds of prey.

Breeding

The breeding season of these eagle species is from April to July. A large platform nest is built on ground or on tree with sticks and twigs. One to three eggs are laid.

Distribution

The eagle subspecies A. n. orientalis is distributed in Europe and Central Asia. It winters in Middle East, Arabia and Africa. The subspecies A. n. nipalensis is distributed in Tibet and China. It winters in Nepal, India and Southeast Asia.

Movement Patterns

These eagle species are migratory and the birds move to south-east Africa, southern Asia and India for wintering. They leave their breeding grounds between August and October and return between January and May.

Status and conservation

The steppe eagle species have an extremely large range and population. They are considered least vulnerable. Habitat degradation, destruction of breeding sites, accidents with power lines are the major threats to the survival of these species of birds.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Aquila nipalensis
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Aquila
Species:A. nipalensis
Binomial name:Aquila nipalensis
Distribution:Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East;
Feeding habits:small birds, small mammals, lizards, frogs and fresh carrion;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

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Wednesday, August 12

Tawny eagle

   ›      ›   Tawny eagle - Aquila rapax.

The tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These tawny eagle species are distributed in Indian subcontinent, Africa and the Middle East.

Taxonomy of Tawny eagle

  • Scientific Name: Aquila rapax
  • Common Name: Tawny eagle
  • French: Aigle ravisseur; German: Savannenadler; Spanish: Águila rapaz;
  • Other names: Falco rapax Temminck, 1828; Indian tawny eagle; Aquila rapax rapax;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Temminck, 1828)
Aquila rapax was earlier included in genus Falco. It is closely related to A. nipalensis, A. heliaca and A. adalberti. The three recognized subspecies are: A. r. vindhiana Franklin, 1831, A. r. belisarius (J. Levaillant, 1850) and A. r. rapax (Temminck, 1828).

Indian birds - Image of Tawny eagle - Aquila rapax
Indian birds - Image of Tawny eagle - Aquila rapax

Description

The tawny eagle is a large bird of prey, measuring 60 to 75 cm in length and weighing 1,600 to 3,100 grams. The wingspan is 160 to 180 cm. It has a long neck and relatively short wings. The upper parts are tawny and the flight feathers and tail are blackish. The neck and lower back are very pale. The call of the eagle is a crow-like barking sound.

Habitat

The tawny eagle inhabits open woodlands and open drylands such as desert, semi-desert, steppes, savannas and plains. They are also found near cultivated lands, settlements and slaughterhouses.

Feeding habits

These eagle species prey on small birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs. They also feed on carrion. They are known to snatch prey from other raptors.

Breeding

The breeding season varies according to the range. In India the breeding season spans November to August. They build large nest on top of tall isolated trees with sticks and twigs. The nest has 1-3 eggs.

Distribution

The eagle subspecies A. r. vindhiana is distributed in Iran, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Myanmar. The subspecies A. r. belisarius is distributed in Africa and Middle East nations. The subspecies A. r. rapax is distributed in much of Africa.

Movement Patterns

These eagle species are sedentary and move within their range and make short distance seasonal movements. Some eagles may occasionally wander long distances.

Status and conservation

The tawny eagle species have an extremely large range and are considered least vulnerable. consuming poisoned carcasses and habitat loss are the major threats to the survival of these species of birds.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Aquila rapax
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Aquila
Species:A. rapax
Binomial name:Aquila rapax
Distribution:Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East;
Feeding habits:small birds, small mammals, lizards, frogs and large insects;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

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Tuesday, August 11

Greater spotted eagle

   ›      ›   Greater spotted eagle - Clanga clanga.

The greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These greater spotted eagle species are distributed in Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East and southern Asia.

Taxonomy of Greater spotted eagle

  • Scientific Name: Clanga clanga
  • Common Name: Greater spotted eagle
  • French: Aigle criard; German: Schelladler; Spanish: Águila moteada;
  • Other names: Aquila Clanga Pallas, 1811;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: Pallas, 1811
Clanga clanga was earlier included in genus Aquila. Clanga clanga was earlier known as Aquila clanga. It is closely related to C. pomarina.

Birds of India - Image of Greater spotted eagle - Clanga clanga
Birds of India - Image of Greater spotted eagle - Clanga clanga

Description

The greater spotted eagle is a large bird of prey, measuring 60 to 70 cm in length and weighing 1,500 to 1,900 grams. The female eagle is larger and weighs 1,800 to 2,500 grams. The wingspan is 150 to 180 cm. The head and wing coverts are very dark brown whereas the rest of the body plumage is lighter brown. The eye is lighter in color than the dark plumage. Its call is a barking sound.

Habitat

The greater spotted eagle inhabits forests near wetlands, marshes and mangroves.

Feeding habits

These eagle species preys on small birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs.

Breeding

The greater spotted eagle breeding season is from April to August. They nest on tall trees and the nest has 1 to 3 eggs. Both the parents take part in raising the chicks.

Distribution

The greater spotted eagle is distributed in Europe, North Africa, East Africa, the Middle East, the Arabian peninsula, the Indian Subcontinent, south Asia and South-East Asia.

Movement Patterns

The greater spotted eagle is migratory and the northern population moves southwards for wintering. They leave their breeding grounds in October and November to winter in the southern ranges and return in February and March.

Status and conservation

The greater spotted eagle global population is estimated to be less than 10,000 individual birds. There is a steady decline in the population and these species of eagles are considered vulnerable. Agricultural intensification, loss of wetland habitats and human activities in the habitats are the major threats to the survival of these eagle species.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as "Vulnerable".

Biological classification of Clanga clanga
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Clanga
Species:C. clanga
Binomial name:Clanga clanga
Distribution:Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East and southern Asia;
Feeding habits:small birds, small mammals, lizards, frogs;
IUCN status listing:
Vulnerable

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Wednesday, August 5

Indian spotted eagle

   ›      ›   Indian spotted eagle - Clanga hastata.

The Indian spotted eagle (Clanga hastata) belongs to the family Accipitridae. These Indian spotted eagle species are distributed in India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Cambodia.

Taxonomy of Indian spotted eagle

  • Scientific Name: Clanga hastata
  • Common Name: Indian spotted eagle
  • French: Aigle lancéolé; German: Gangesadler; Spanish: Águila india;
  • Other names: Morphnus hastatus Lesson, 1831; Aquila hastata;
  • Family: Accipitridae › Accipitriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Lesson, 1834)
Clanga hastata was earlier included in genus Morphnus and later in genus Aquila. Clanga hastata was earlier known as Aquila hastata.

Image of spotted eagle - Clanga hastata
Image of spotted eagle - Clanga hastata

Description

These spotted eagle species are medium sized birds of prey, measuring 50 to 60 cm in length. The wingspan is 150 cm. These bird species have a broad head and wide mouth. The plumage is pale brown and has pale spots. The iris of these birds is darker than the plumage. The wings are broad and short and the tail is short. Their call is a high-pitched, cackling laughing sound.

Habitat

These eagle species inhabit subtropical and tropical dry forests, fringe of forests, plantations and agricultural fields dotted with trees.

Feeding habits

These eagle species preys on small birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs.

Breeding

The spotted eagle breeding season is from March to August. These birds nest on trees. The nest is built with sticks and lined with leaves.

Distribution

These species of birds are distributed in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Cambodia.

Movement Patterns

These eagle species are sedentary and the juveniles spread within the range.

Status and conservation

These spotted eagle species have a small and declining population of less than 10,000 birds and are considered vulnerable. Habit loss is the major threat to the survival of these species.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these eagle species and has listed them as "Vulnerable".

Biological classification of Clanga hastata
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Accipitriformes
Family:Accipitridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Clanga
Species:C. hastata
Binomial name:Clanga hastata
Distribution:India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Cambodia;
Feeding habits:small birds, small mammals, lizards, frogs;
IUCN status listing:
Vulnerable

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