Tuesday, June 6

Black-headed gull images

   ›      ›   Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) belongs to the family Laridae under the order Charadriiformes.

The risk of Avian botulism in black-headed gull

The species Chroicocephalus ridibundus can be affected by Avian botulism, a paralytic disease caused by ingestion of the toxin Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNt) produced by the bacteria, Clostridium botulinum.

This bacteria is widespread in soil. For this bacteria to become active and produce the toxin, warm temperatures, a high protein source and an anaerobic environment is necessary. Different strains of bacteria produce different types of toxin and the Chroicocephalus ridibundus species are affected mostly by toxin type E.

The birds eating maggots from offal, carrion and dead fish and invertebrates are mostly likely to get affected. They do not normally get affected by eating the flesh of dead bird.

The maggots eating on the decaying flesh are not affected by the toxin and keep accumulating toxin. The birds eating these toxin-loaded maggots can develop botulism after eating as few as 3 or 4 maggots.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Species:C. ridibundus
Genus:Chroicocephalus
Subfamily:-
Family:Laridae
Order:Charadriiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
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Images
Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
1.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Bengt Nyman

Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
2.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by NoRud

Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
3.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Bartosz MORĄG

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
4.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Andreas Eichler

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
5.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Roland zh

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
6.Chroicocephalus ridibundus by Roman Andriiashik

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
7.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by Stuutje1979

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
8.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by PierreSelim

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
9.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by J.-H. Janßen

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
10.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by Andrew Thomas

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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chroicocephalus_ridibundus_EM1B8730_(34394252726)_(2).jpg (cropped)
Author: Bengt Nyman | License: CC-BY-2.0 as on 6/5/17
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black-headed_gull_adult,_Lachm%C3%B6ve(Chroicocephalus_ridibundus).JPG (cropped)
Author: NoRud | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black-headed_gull_(winter_plumage).JPG (cropped)
Author: Bartosz MORĄG | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2016.07.15.-21-Badestrand_Friedrichskoog--Lachmoewe.jpg (cropped)
Author: Andreas Eichler | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chroicocephalus_ridibundus_-_Z%C3%BCrichhorn_2010-10-05_17-14-50.JPG (cropped)
Author: Roland zh | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
6.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%D0%A7%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BA%D0%B8_IMG_7910.jpg (cropped)
Author: Roman Andriiashik | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
7.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stuutje1979_Black-headed_Gull_1.JPG (cropped)
Author: Stuutje1979 | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
8.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Annecy%27s_Lake_-_20111229_-_Larus_ridibundus_01.JPG (cropped)
Author: PierreSelim | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
9.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Binz_Chroicocephalus_ridibundus_05.jpg (cropped)
Author: J.-H. Janßen | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
10.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black_Headed_Gull,_Par_Beach,_Cornwall_-_UK,_August_10_2012._(15027636575).jpg (cropped)
Author: Andrew Thomas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/6/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) images.
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Monday, June 5

Black-headed gull

   ›      ›   Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus

The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is a small gull belonging to the family Laridae.

The black-headed gull species are distributed in Europe, central Asia, Middle East, Africa, Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and eastern coast of Canada. These gull species were previously placed in the genus Larus. These gulls are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Black-headed Gull Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Black-headed gull - Overview

  • Scientific name: Chroicocephalus ridibundus
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766
  • Family: Laridae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Black-headed gull, Chinese: 红嘴鸥, French: Mouette rieuse, German: Lachmöwe, Spanish: Gaviota reidora, Russian: Обыкновенная чайка, Japanese: ユリカモメ, Malay: Burung Camar Kepala Hitam
  • Other names: Common Black-headed Gull, Northern Black-headed Gull
  • Distribution: most of Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa, India, southeast Asia
  • Diet and feeding habits: aquatic and terrestrial insects, earthworms, molluscs, crustaceans, marine worms, fish, grains, rodents
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)
The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is closely related to brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus), Bonaparte's gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia) and slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei).

Appearance, physical description and identification

The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is a small gull, measuring 35 to 45 cm in length and weighing 200 to 320 grams. The wingspan is 95 to 110 cm.

The adult breeding black-headed gull has a dark chocolate brown frontal hood. The upperparts are pale gray. The throat, breast and the underparts are white. The leading edge of the outer upperwing is white. The primary wing feathers have black tips.

In winter, the hood of black-headed gull is lost leaving just two dark spots on ear coverts. Juveniles have brown patches over the body. The bill and the legs are dark red in breeders and pale red in non-breeding birds.

The black irises differentiate them from the pale yellow irises of brown headed gull. The black-headed gull call is a melodious "kree-ar..kree-ar" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Birds of India - Image of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus by NoRud

Birds of India - Photo of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Indian birds - Picture of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus by Bartosz MORĄG

Indian birds - Image of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Birds of India - Photo of Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus by Bengt Nyman

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These black-headed gull species are distributed in Europe, central Asia, Middle East, Africa, Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and eastern coast of Canada.

In India, wintering populations of the black-headed gull occur in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of the black-headed gull in Canada are, Île a Calculot, Quoddy Region, Quidi Vidi Lake, Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest and Île Nue de Mingan.

Some of the IBA of these species in China are Xayar forest and wetland, Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan, Aksu River basin, Lower reaches of Tarim River, Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley, Ebi Nur and Kuytun River and Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng.

Some of the IBA of these gull species in Russia are Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters, Ptich'ya magistral' area, Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay, Upper streams of Ob' river, Lake Tarutino, Gor'koye lake near Novotroitskoye village and Kharchinskoye lake.

Ecosystem and habitat

These black-headed gull species do not normally occur in forests. These species occur in altitudes from 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems of these gull species include ploughed fields, flooded agricultural lands and urban garbage dumps.

The natural ecosystems of these black-headed gull species include flooded grasslands, coastal sand dunes, rocky, sandy or shingly shoreline, intertidal salt marshes, estuaries, tidal pools, shallow seas with macroalgal growth, freshwater marshes, lakes, rivers and creeks.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these black-headed gull species is mostly aquatic insects. Terrestrial and aquatic insects, earthworms, molluscs, crustaceans, marine worms, fish, grains, scraps and carrion are their primary food. They seem to feed on invertebrates in ploughed fields with relish.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these black-headed gull species is during April and May in much of their northern breeding range. These species take two years for reaching maturity. They breed in calm, shallow wetland habitats.

They form breeding colonies on the margins of inland natural waterbodies, lagoons, coastal dunes and offshore islands, man made ponds and reservoirs, marshes and flooded plains.

The nest of the black-headed gull species is shallow construction with vegetation, placed on floating mat of weeds, hummock, grassy or sandy ground. The neighboring nest may be just a meter away. The typical clutch may contain 2 or 3 mottled pale buff colored eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

The black-headed gull species are mostly migratory birds.

The black-headed gull species breed in central Asia and much of Europe. These northern populations migrate south for wintering in coastal habitats, tidal inshore waters and riverine habitats. They roost in large flocks in wintering habitat and return to breeding colonies in February.

These gulls migrate to western Europe, western Africa, Mediterranean areas, Red sea areas, Persian Gulf areas, west coast of India, Sri Lanka, Himalayan foothills, southeast Asian coast, eastern China, South Korea and Japan.

Some of these gull populations in mild weather areas in southern and eastern Europe as well as east coast of North America are resident.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) is estimated to number between 4,800,000 to 8,900,000 individual birds. The overall population trend of these species is unknown. Throughout its range it is reported to be common. The generation length is 9.6 years. Its distribution size is about 44,500,000 sq.km.

The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion, or under the population size criterion. Hunting for food and sport, avian influenza and avian botulism are the main threats that may endanger the survival of these gull species.

IUCN and CITES status

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the gull species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Laridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Chroicocephalus
Species:C. ridibundus
Binomial name:Chroicocephalus ridibundus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black-headed_gull_adult,_Lachm%C3%B6ve(Chroicocephalus_ridibundus).JPG (cropped)
Image author: NoRud | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black-headed_gull_(winter_plumage).JPG(cropped)
Image author: Bartosz MORĄG | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chroicocephalus_ridibundus_EM1B8730_(34394252726)_(2).jpg(cropped)
Image author: Bengt Nyman | License: CC-BY-2.0 as on 6/5/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus.
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Sunday, June 4

Red turtle dove pictures

   ›      ›   Red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) pictures
Taxonomic classification   <>   Pictures
The red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) belongs to the family Columbidae under the order Columbiformes.

Plumage-color dimorphism in red turtle dove

The species under the genus Streptopelia are mainly slim, small to medium-sized birds. The upperparts tend to be pale brown/pink and the underparts are usually shades of pink. Both the sexes look alike in most of the Streptopelia spp.

In the species Streptopelia tranquebarica, there is sexual dimorphism in plumage. The male S. tranquebarica has vinous-reddish mantle, breast and belly. The female S. tranquebarica has wood brown upperparts and grayish brown breast and belly.

The head, forehead, crown and nape are pale bluish gray in males. In females the head is pale pinkish brown and the forehead is pale gray. The back and rump are dark bluish gray in males whereas the back and rump are gray in females.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Streptopelia tranquebarica
Species:S. tranquebarica
Genus:Streptopelia
Subfamily:-
Family:Columbidae
Order:Columbiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
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Pictures
Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
1.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by 孫鋒 林

Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
2.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by Davidvraju

Streptopelia tranquebarica
3.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by Lip Kee

Streptopelia tranquebarica
4.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by Michael MK Khor

Streptopelia tranquebarica
5.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by 孫鋒 林

Streptopelia tranquebarica
6.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by Gulumeemee

Streptopelia tranquebarica
7.Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Picture by Alnus

Streptopelia tranquebarica
8.Streptopelia tranquebarica Picture by Alnus

Streptopelia tranquebarica
9.Streptopelia tranquebarica by Tom Tarrant

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1.Picture source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16763565140/ (cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/4/17
2.Picture source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Davidvraju | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Picture source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Streptopelia_tranquebarica.jpg (cropped)
Author: Lip Kee | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/4/17
4.Picture source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streptopelia_tranquebarica_-Singapore-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Michael MK Khor | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 6/4/17
5.Picture source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16949721202/ (cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/4/17
6.Picture source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_turtle_dove.JPG (cropped)
Author: Gulumeemee | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
7.Picture source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Turtle_Dove_1737_(cropped).jpg (cropped)
Author: Alnus | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
8.Picture source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streptopelia_tranquebarica_P2249504.jpg (cropped)
Author: Alnus | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
9.Picture source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aviceda/8687687682 (cropped)
Author: Tom Tarrant | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 6/4/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) pictures.
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Saturday, June 3

Red turtle dove

   ›      ›   Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica

The red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) belongs to the family of doves and pigeons, Columbidae.

The red turtle dove species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Indonesia and Philippines. These turtle dove species are sexually dimorphic. There are two recognized subspecies of these doves.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Red Turtle Dove Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Red turtle dove - Overview

  • Scientific name: Streptopelia tranquebarica
  • Species author: (Hermann, 1804)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Columba tranquebarica Hermann, 1804
  • Family: Columbidae › Columbiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Red turtle dove, Chinese: 火斑鸠, French: Tourterelle à tête grise, German: Zwerglachtaube, Spanish: Tórtola cabecigrís, Russian: Короткохвостая горлица, Japanese: ベニバト, Indonesian: Burung Dederuk Merah
  • Other names: Red Collared-dove, Dwarf Turtle Dove
  • Distribution: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippines
  • Diet and feeding habits: wild seeds, buds, leaves, herbs, grains, cereals
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)
The red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) is closely related to the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and the island collared dove (Streptopelia bitorquata).

The two recognized subspecies of the red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) are: Streptopelia tranquebarica tranquebarica (Hermann, 1804) and Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis (Temminck, 1824).

Appearance, physical description and identification

The red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) is a small dove, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 100 to 105 grams. These birds have sexually dimorphic plumage.

In the male red turtle dove, the head, forehead, nape and ear-coverts are pale bluish gray. There is a broad black collar around the hind neck which is broken at the front. The chin is whitish gray and the throat is pale pink.

The mantle and wing-coverts are vinous red. The primary coverts and flight feathers are blackish brown. The back and the uppertail coverts are dark bluish gray. The breast and belly are red wine colored. The undertail is white and the underwing is pale gray.

The female red turtle dove has earth-brown upperparts and pale gray forehead. The back and rump are gray. The flight feathers are dark brown. The chin and throat region is pale grayish buff. The breast and belly region is grayish brown. The juveniles look like females but lack the black collar.

In both the sexes, the irises are brownish black. The orbital skin is grayish. The bill is black with grayish base. The feet are dark red. The turtle dove call is a rattling, repeated "croo-urr-oo-croo" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Birds of India - Image of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica by 孫鋒 林

Birds of India - Photo of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Indian birds - Picture of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica by Alnus

Indian birds - Image of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica
Birds of India - Photo of Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica by Lip Kee

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These red turtle dove species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Indonesia and Philippines.

Unconfirmed reports of red turtle dove sightings were recorded from United Arab Emirates. Vagrant populations are observed in Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea, South Korea, Oman and Russia. Introduced populations occur in Singapore and Malaysia.

In India, these red turtle dove species are distributed in all the states and also Andaman Islands.

The red turtle dove nominate subspecies S. t. tranquebarica is distributed in Pakistan, throughout India (except northeast) and west Nepal.

The turtle dove subspecies S. t. humilis is distributed in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, northeast India, Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Indonesia and Philippines.

Ecosystem and habitat

These red turtle dove species have moderate forest dependence. These species occur in altitudes from 0 to 1300 meters. Unlike other dove species, these birds have not colonized urban and suburban areas.

The natural ecosystems of these species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, dry woodlands, tropical and subtropical dry forests, scrub jungles, tropical and subtropical dry shrublands, open country with trees and dry savanna.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these red turtle dove species is mostly seeds. Wild seeds, buds, tender leaves, grains and cereals are their primary food. They seem to feed exclusively on the ground in open country.

They glean grains and cereals from crops in agricultural fields. They feed mainly in the morning and evening, resting during the hotter part of the day.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these red turtle dove species is during the summer (April to September) in their northern range. The breeding season of the birds in the southern range depends upon availability of abundant food.

The red turtle dove nest is a scant platform of intertwined sticks and twigs. The nest is built high in a tree or shrub and located at the end of a leafy branch.

The typical dove clutch has 2 creamy white eggs. Both of the pair are involved in nest building, incubation and taking care of the young. The young are initially feed with 'crop milk' by the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

The red turtle dove species are partially migratory birds.

Summer breeding populations of these dove species are found in west Punjab (India) and Pakistan. These populations migrate southwards for wintering. The populations of these dove species in rest of the range are resident birds.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of these species is reported to be stable. Throughout its range it is reported to be common to abundant. The generation length is 5.3 years. Its distribution size is about 19,000,000 sq.km.

The red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion, or under the population size criterion. The ongoing habitat destruction, hunting and trapping for pet trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of these dove species.

IUCN and CITES status

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the dove species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Streptopelia tranquebarica
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Columbiformes
Family:Columbidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Streptopelia
Species:S. tranquebarica
Binomial name:Streptopelia tranquebarica
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
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1.Red turtle dove image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16763565140/ (cropped)
Image author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/3/17
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Turtle_Dove_1737_(cropped).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Alnus | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
3.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Streptopelia_tranquebarica.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Lip Kee | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/3/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Red turtle dove - Streptopelia tranquebarica.
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Friday, June 2

Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo images

   ›      ›   Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The square-tailed drongo-cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) belongs to the family Cuculidae under the order Cuculiformes.

Characteristics of square-tailed drongo-cuckoo

The genus Surniculus has four species grouped under it. They are Surniculus lugubris, Surniculus dicruroides, Surniculus musschenbroeki and Surniculus velutinus.

All these four species resemble the species Dicrurus macrocercus, a small Asian passerine bird of the family Dicruridae. All the Surniculus spp. have glossy bluish black plumage, black eyes, long tails and similar sizes.

The individual species of genus Surniculus are differentiated by the shape of bill, juvenile plumage, distribution range and calls. Another major difference is the presence of fork or its absence in the tail.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Surniculus lugubris
Species:S. lugubris
Genus:Surniculus
Subfamily:-
Family:Cuculidae
Order:Cuculiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
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Images
Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
1.Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
Image by Melvin Yap

Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
2.Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
Image by Francesco Veronesi

Surniculus lugubris
3.Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
Image by Eric Gropp

Surniculus lugubris
4.Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
Image by Melvin Yap

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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mjmyap/22931365611/
Image author: Melvin Yap | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 6/1/17
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/francesco_veronesi/34363359095/ (cropped)
Image author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/1/17
3.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Square-tailed_Drongo-Cuckoo.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Eric Gropp | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 6/1/17
4.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mjmyap/22297522244/
Image author: Melvin Yap | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 6/1/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) images.
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