Saturday, August 5

Large woodshrike

   ›      ›   Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus

The large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) belongs to the family of flycatcher-shrikes, philentomas and woodshrikes, Tephrodornithidae.

The large woodshrike species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China and southeast Asia. The scientific name of these woodshrike species is in dispute and they are also referred to as T. gularis. These woodshrikes are polytypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Large Woodshrike Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Large woodshrike - Overview

  • Scientific name: Tephrodornis virgatus
  • Species author: (Temminck, 1824)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Lanius virgatus Temminck, 1824, Tephrodornis gularis (Raffles, 1822)
  • Family: Tephrodornithidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Large woodshrike, Chinese: 钩嘴林鵙, French: Téphrodorne bridé, German: Waldvanga, Spanish: Ceniciento grande, Russian: Коричневохвостый личинкоед, Japanese: オオモズサンショウクイ, Malay: Burung Petulak
  • Other names: Brown-tailed woodshrike, Hook-billed woodshrike
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia
  • Diet and feeding habits: large insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Appearance, physical description and identification

The large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) is a thickset shrike-like bird, measuring 18 to 23 cm in length and weighing 25 to 45 grams.

The large woodshrike species have drab gray-brown plumage. The male of the nominate subspecies has blue-black mask which is fairly broad beyond eye. The mask originates near nostrils and extends through eyes to the side of neck.

The forehead of the large woodshrike nominate subspecies is whitish. The crown and the nape are grayish brown. The mantle and upperparts are grayish brown. The lower back and rump are whitish. The tail is grayish brown. The underparts and flanks are whitish.

The brown mask in the female woodshrike is poorly defined. The bill is paler than the male and the eyes are darker. The juvenile has buff and brown spotted scaly crown and upperparts. The tertials and tail feathers have diffuse barring and buff fringes and dark subterminal crescents.

The bill is heavy, hooked and blackish brown in color. The irises are brown. The feet are gray. The call of these large woodshrike species is a musical "kew..kew..kew" or a loud, ringing “pi-pi-pi-pi-pi-pi” sound. They also make harsh shrike-like calls.
Indian birds - Picture of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus
1.Indian birds - Image of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus by Dibyendu Ash

Birds of India - Photo of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus
2.Indian birds - Picture of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus by Pkspks

Indian birds - Image of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus
3.Birds of India - Photo of Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus by Yogendra Joshi

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The large woodshrike species are distributed in north, east and northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Indonesia.

In India, these woodshrike species are distributed in the states of Uttarakhand, Uttarpradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram.

In China, these large woodshrike species are distributed in the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Zhejiang.

The large woodshrike nominate subspecies T. v. virgatus is distributed in Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The subspecies T. v. frenatus is distributed in Borneo (Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia).

The woodshrike subspecies T. v. pelvicus is distributed in north, east and northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north, northeast and southwest Myanmar. The subspecies T. v. fretensis is distributed in southeast Thailand.

The large woodshrike subspecies T. v. jugans is distributed in east Myanmar, northwest Thailand and south China (southwest Yunnan). The subspecies T. v. hainanus is distributed in north Laos, north Vietnam and Hainan (China).

The large woodshrike subspecies T. v. latouchei is distributed in south and southeast China (Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Zhejian).The subspecies T. v. verneyi is distributed in southwest Thailand and southeast Myanmar.

The large woodshrike subspecies T. v. annectens is distributed in south Thailand and south myanmar. The subspecies T. v. mekongensis is distributed in southeast Thailand, Cambodia, south Laos and south Vietnam.

Ecosystem and habitat

These large woodshrike species have medium forest dependence. These species normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1850 meters.

The natural ecosystems of these species include broadleaved forests, moist evergreen forests, primary and secondary forests, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests and tropical and subtropical moist shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the large woodshrike consists mainly of insects. Grasshoppers, crickets, locust, beetles, dragonflies, moths, mantids, stick insects and spiders are their primary food. Occasionally they may feed on berries and plant matter.

The large woodshrike species glean insects from foliage and from trunk and branches. They also hawk flying insects in the air from exposed perches.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these large woodshrike species is from December to June in India with a peak from March to May. The laying season is from March in May in southeast Asia. The breeding season is from July in China.

These woodshrikes are monogamous. The breeding pair build a cup-shaped nest on a fork of a tree. The nest is made of plant material held by cobwebs and plant fiber and is covered with bits of bark and lichen.

The typical large woodshrike clutch contains 3 white eggs. Both the parents take turns to incubate the eggs. The female is seen feeding the young with berries and insects. The nestlings are entirely altricial, being naked and blind, requiring continuous parental care.

Migration and movement patterns

The large woodshrike species are non-migratory resident birds. In Himalayas, altitudinal movements have been observed. The birds in higher altitudes move to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juvenile woodshrikes may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of these species is reported to be stable.

Throughout its range this woodshrike species is reported to be uncommon and locally common. The generation length is 3.9 years. Its distribution size is about 13,100,000 sq.km.

Habitat degradation and fragmentation and trapping for the cagebird trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of these woodshrike species.

IUCN and CITES status

The large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the woodshrike species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Tephrodornis virgatus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Tephrodornithidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Tephrodornis
Species:T. virgatus
Binomial name:Tephrodornis virgatus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) is closely related to Malabar woodshrike (Tephrodornis sylvicola).

The ten recognized subspecies of the large woodshrike (Tephrodornis virgatus) are: T. v. virgatus, T. v. frenatus, T. v. fretensis, T. v. pelvicus, T. v. mekongensis, T. v. jugans, T. v. annectens, T. v. latouchei, T. v. verneyi and T. v. hainanus.
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1.Large woodshrike image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Woodshrike_Barambubu_Uttarakhand_India_02.02.2015.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tephrodornis_gularis.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Pkspks | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/yogendra174/26908113385/ (cropped)
Image author: Yogendra Joshi | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 8/5/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Large woodshrike - Tephrodornis virgatus.
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Friday, August 4

Blue-naped pitta

   ›      ›   Blue-naped pitta - Hydrornis nipalensis

The blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) belongs to the family of pittas, Pittidae.

The blue-naped pitta species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam. These pitta species are brightly colored having bright blue nape and hinderneck. These pittas are polytypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Blue-naped Pitta Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Blue-naped pitta - Overview

  • Scientific name: Hydrornis nipalensis
  • Species author: (Hodgson, 1837)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Paludicola Nipalensis Hodgson, 1837, Pitta nipalensis
  • Family: Pittidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Blue-naped pitta, Chinese: 蓝枕八色鸫, French: Brève à nuque bleue, German: Blaunackenpitta, Spanish: Pita nuquiazul, Russian: Синешапочная питта, Japanese: アオエリヤイロチョウ, Thai: นกแต้วแล้วใหญ่ท้ายทอยสีฟ้า
  • Other names: Blue naped Pitta, Schneider's Pitta
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, worms, snails, small lizards
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Appearance, physical description and identification

The blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) is a distinctive colourful bird, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 110 to 130 grams.

The blue-naped pitta male has uniform olive-green upperparts. The crown, nape and hinderneck are bluish. In female the hindercrown is reddish yellow and the hinderneck is greenish.

The forehead and the sides of the head are rufous. The chin and upper throat are whitish, merging gradually into fulvous underparts. The stubby tail is brown with green tinge. There is a black thin postocular stripe.

The bill is brown. The irises are brown. The feet are pinkish-brown. The juveniles are paler than the adults. The covert-spots are buffy. Crown has pale buff markings. The ear-coverts are buff.

The call of these species is a sharp, double whistle "uk-wuip..uk-wuip" or "ip-wuiip..wuiip" sound.
Image of Blue-naped pitta - Hydrornis nipalensis
Image of Blue-naped pitta - Hydrornis nipalensis

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The blue-naped pitta species are distributed in northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China (Yunnan, Guangxi), north and central Myanmar, northern Laos and northern Vietnam.

In India, these blue-naped pitta species are distributed in the states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram.

The blue-naped pitta nominate subspecies H. n. nipalensis is distributed in northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and northern Myanmar.

The blue-naped pitta subspecies H. n. hendeei is distributed in eastern Myanmar, southern China (southern Yunnan, southwest Guangxi), north and central Laos and northern Vietnam.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these blue-naped pitta species in Laos are Nam Et and Nam Xam. The IBA in Nepal is Phulchoki Mountain forests.

Ecosystem and habitat

These blue-naped pitta species have medium forest dependence. These species normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1500 meters.

The artificial ecosystems of these pitta species include heavily degraded tropical and subtropical forests and reclaimed forests.

The natural ecosystems of these species include broadleaved evergreen forests, primary and secondary forests, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, bamboo woodlands, tropical and subtropical swamps.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the blue-naped pitta consists mainly of insects. Grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, snails, worms, moths, spiders, small frogs and lizards are their primary food. Occasionally they may feed on berries and plant matter.

The blue-naped pitta are terrestrial, forage in clearings in early mornings and late evenings.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these blue-naped pitta species is from April to August in Indian Subcontinent. The laying season is from April in Myanmar.

These blue-naped pitta are monogamous and defend their breeding territory. The breeding pair build a large dome shaped nest with side entrance. The nest is hidden amongst vines or vegetation.

The typical blue-naped pitta clutch contains 3-5 white eggs. Both the parents take turns to incubate the eggs for 14 to 16 days. Both the parents take part in raising the chicks. The nestlings are entirely altricial, being naked and blind require continuous parental care.

Migration and movement patterns

The blue-naped pitta species are non-migratory resident birds. In Himalayas, altitudinal movements have been observed. The birds in higher altitudes move to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juvenile pittas may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of these species is reported to be decreasing.

Throughout its range this pitta species is reported to be very abundant to rare. The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 1,620,000 sq.km.

Habitat degradation and fragmentation and trapping for the cagebird trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of these pitta species.

IUCN and CITES status

The blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the pitta species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Hydrornis nipalensis
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Pittidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Hydrornis
Species:H. nipalensis
Binomial name:Hydrornis nipalensis
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The blue-naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) is closely related to rusty-naped pitta (Hydrornis oatesi) and blue-rumped pitta (Hydrornis soror). The two recognized subspecies of bluish naped pitta (Hydrornis nipalensis) are: Hydrornis nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson, 1837) and Hydrornis nipalensis hendeei (Bangs & Van Tyne, 1931).
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Blue-naped pitta image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BirdsAsiaJohnGoVGoul_0324.jpg
Image author: John Gould & Henry Constantine Richter | License: Public domain
Current topic in Birds of India: Blue-naped pitta - Hydrornis nipalensis.
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Thursday, August 3

Long-tailed broadbill photos

   ›      ›   Long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) photos
Taxonomic classification   <>   Photos
The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) belongs to the family Eurylaimidae under the order Passeriformes.

Long-tailed broadbill taxonomy

The family Eurylaimidae is named after the type genus Eurylaimus. "The name means ‘broad throat’, from the Greek eurus (εὐρύς, ‘broad, wide’) and laimos (λαιμός, ‘throat’)."

The family Eurylaimidae contains eleven genera classified in four subfamilies (Smithornithinae, Pseudocalyptomeninae, Calyptomeninae and Eurylaiminae).

The subfamily Eurylaiminae has eight species under six genera (Corydon, Cymbirhynchus, Eurylaimus, Sarcophanops, Psarisomus, Serilophus) grouped under it.

The genus Psarisomus is monotypic having only species Psarisomus dalhousiae. The scientific name, Psarisomus dalhousiae, commemorates Christina Broun, Countess of Dalhousie (1786–1839) wife of General George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie GCB (23 October 1770 – 21 March 1838).

The species was first identified by Professor Robert Jameson FRS FRSE (11 July 1774 – 19 April 1854), a Scottish naturalist and mineralogist.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Psarisomus dalhousiae
Species:P. dalhousiae
Genus:Psarisomus
Subfamily:-
Family:Eurylaimidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
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Psarisomus dalhousiae
1.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by JJ Harrison

Psarisomus dalhousiae
2.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Dibyendu Ash

Psarisomus dalhousiae
3.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Dibyendu Ash

Psarisomus dalhousiae
4.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Francesco Veronesi

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Psarisomus dalhousiae
5.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Jason Thompson

Psarisomus dalhousiae
6.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Jason Thompson

Psarisomus dalhousiae
7.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
Photo by Francesco Veronesi

Psarisomus dalhousiae
8.Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae juvenile
Photo by tontantravel

Psarisomus dalhousiae
9.Psarisomus dalhousiae nest by Jason Thompson

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1.Long-tailed broadbill photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Psarisomus_dalhousiae_-_Kaeng_Krachan.jpg (cropped)
Author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2.Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
4.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/francesco_veronesi/14235251006/ (cropped)
Author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 8/3/17
5.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/79492850@N00/6999394192/ (cropped)
Author: Jason Thompson | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 8/3/17
6.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/79492850@N00/8541459902/ (cropped)
Author: Jason Thompson | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 8/3/17
7.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/francesco_veronesi/14235250116/ (cropped)
Author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 8/3/17
8.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tontantravel/8913999864/ (cropped)
Author: tontantravel | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 8/3/17
9.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/79492850@N00/7150464839/ (cropped)
Author: Jason Thompson | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 8/3/17
Current topic in Birds of India: Long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) photos.
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Wednesday, August 2

Long-tailed broadbill

   ›      ›   Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae

The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) belongs to the family of broadbills, Eurylaimidae.

The long-tailed broadbill species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China and southeast Asia. These broadbill species are colored bright green with black cap and contrasting bright yellow face. These broadbills are polytypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Long-tailed Broadbill Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Long-tailed broadbill - Overview

  • Scientific name: Psarisomus dalhousiae
  • Species author: Jameson, 1835
  • Synonyms/Protonym: [Eurylaimus]. Dalhousiae Jameson, 1835
  • Family: Eurylaimidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Long-tailed broadbill, Chinese: 长尾阔嘴鸟, French: Eurylaime psittacin, German: Papageibreitrachen, Spanish: Eurilaimo lorito, Russian: Длиннохвостый ширококлюв, Japanese: オナガヒロハシ, Malay: Burung Takau Bayan
  • Other names: Long tailed Broadbill
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, southeast Asia
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Appearance, physical description and identification

The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) is a distinctive colourful bird, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 50 grams. These broadbill species are long-tailed and have bright green plumage.

The adult long-tailed broadbills have a helmet-like black cap and a glossy blue patch on the crown. There are lengthened yellow or yellowish green patches on each side of the occiput. There is a smaller glossy light blue patch on the nape.

The face and throat are bright yellow. There is a yellow throat band. There is a frill of whitish silky feathers which nearly surrounds the throat below the yellow band. The chin has a wash of pale yellowish green.

The back and wings are deep grass green. The underparts are verditer green or bluish green. The primaries are black, having metallic blue margin at the base of the external web and white spot on the base of the inner web.

In flight, the underwings of the long-tailed broadbill appear blackish brown with white patches on the base of the primary feathers. The tail is long, the undertail being black and graduated while the uppertail being blue or greenish blue.

The bill of the broadbill is broad, strong and pale yellowish green with lighter edges. The irises are reddish brown. The eyering is yellowish. The forepart of the tarsi and toes are pea-green and the hinder side and the under parts are fleshy brown.

The juveniles of these broadbill species are short-tailed, having green head and dull plumage. The long-tailed broadbills are noisy during breeding season.

The call of the long-tailed broadbill is shrill, loud "pseeu..pseeu..pseeu" and "tseeay..tseeay..tseeay" sounds on a descending scale. They also make a sharp rasping "pseeup" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
1.Birds of India - Image of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae by Dibyendu Ash

Birds of India - Photo of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
2.Indian birds - Picture of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae by JJ Harrison

Indian birds - Image of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae
3.Birds of India - Photo of Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae by Dibyendu Ash

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The long-tailed broadbill species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh (probably extinct), Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi), Malaysia and Indonesia.

In India, these long-tailed broadbill species are distributed in the states of Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.

The long-tailed broadbill nominate subspecies P. d. dalhousiae is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, northern Myanmar, southern China, Thailand, Laos and central Vietnam. The subspecies P. d. borneensis is distributed in north Borneo (Malaysia and Indonesia).

The long-tailed broadbill subspecies P. d. cyanicauda is distributed in southern Thailand and Cambodia. The subspecies P. d. divinus is distributed in southern Vietnam. The broadbill subspecies P. d. psittacinus is distributed in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra (Indonesia).

Ecosystem and habitat

These long-tailed broadbill species have medium forest dependence. These species normally occur in altitudes from 150 to 2500 meters.

The artificial ecosystems of these long-tailed broadbill include cultivated land, pastureland and rural gardens.

The natural ecosystems of these broadbill species include primary and secondary forests, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, wetlands, rivers, freshwater lakes, streams and creeks.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the long-tailed broadbill consists mainly of insects. Grasshoppers, crickets, locust, beetles, aphids, dipteran flies, bugs, moths and spiders are their primary food. Occasionally they may feed on small frogs, berries and fruits.

The long-tailed broadbill usually glean the insects from tree branches, from the barks of trees, from foliage and from forest floor. They also catch flying insects on the wing.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these long-tailed broadbill species is from March to August in Indian Subcontinent. The laying season is from April in Myanmar.

The breeding pair of long-tailed broadbills build large, bulky pear-shaped nest. The nest is usually suspended from a branch of a tall slender tree, overhanging water. The nest has a small 1-2 inch circular aperture as entrance on the side of the structure.

The broadbill nest is built with fine roots, creepers, mosses, dead leaves and other fibrous and stringy vegetable matter. The entrance is protected by a curtain of leaves. The nest is lined with grass, rootlets or small dry leaves.

The typical broadbill clutch consists 5-6, elongate, oval, white eggs. Both the parents incubate the eggs and feed the young.

Migration and movement patterns

The long-tailed broadbill species are non-migratory resident birds. In Himalayas, altitudinal movements have been observed. The birds in higher altitudes move to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juvenile broadbills may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of these species is reported to be decreasing.

Throughout its range this broadbill species is reported to be common to rare. The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 7,910,000 sq.km.

Habitat degradation and fragmentation and trapping for the cagebird trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of these broadbill species.

IUCN and CITES status

The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the broadbill species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Psarisomus dalhousiae
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family:Eurylaimidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Psarisomus
Species:P. dalhousiae
Binomial name:Psarisomus dalhousiae
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The five recognized subspecies of long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) are: P. d. dalhousiae (Jameson, 1835), P. d. borneensis E. J. O. Hartert, 1904, P. d. psittacinus (S. Müller, 1836), P. d. divinus Deignan, 1947 and P. d. cyanicauda Riley, 1935.
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1.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Long-tailed_Broadbill_Pangolakha_Wildlife_Sanctuary_East_Sikkim_Sikkim_India_21.04.2016.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
2.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Psarisomus_dalhousiae_-_Kaeng_Krachan.jpg(cropped)
Photo author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
3.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Long-tailed_Broadbill_Naina_Devi_Himalayan_Bird_Conservation_Reserve_Uttarakhand_India_27.05.2016.jpg(cropped)
Photo author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Current topic in Birds of India: Long-tailed broadbill - Psarisomus dalhousiae.
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Tuesday, August 1

Eurasian wryneck images

   ›      ›   Eurasian wryneck (Jynx torquilla) images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The Eurasian wryneck (Jynx torquilla) belongs to the family Picidae under the order Piciformes.

Eurasian wryneck taxonomy

The family Picidae was introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.

The family Picidae has about 240 species arranged in 35 genera under four subfamilies. The four subfamilies are, Jynginae, Nesoctitinae, Picinae and Picumninae. The subfamily Jynginae is monotypic having only one genus, Jynx, under it.

The genus Jynx has only two species with unique characters classified under it. Jynx ruficollis is an African bird having three subspecies. Jynx torquilla is distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa.

There are four recognized subspecies of Jynx torquilla, viz., Jynx torquilla torquilla, Jynx torquilla tschusii, Jynx torquilla mauretanica and Jynx torquilla himalayana.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Jynx torquilla
Species:J. torquilla
Genus:Jynx
Subfamily:-
Family:Picidae
Order:Piciformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
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1.Eurasian wryneck - Jynx torquilla 335
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Jynx torquilla
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Pepe Reigada | License: public domain
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jynx_torquilla_no_(cropped).JPG (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY 3.0
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eaglestein/4921048842/ (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 7/30/17
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eurasian_Wryneck.jpg (cropped)
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8.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jynx_torquilla_(Ramsoy).JPG (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
9.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torcecuello.JPG (cropped)
Author: Carles Pastor | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Current topic in Birds of India: Eurasian wryneck (Jynx torquilla) images.
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