Monday, January 15

Fulvous-breasted woodpecker

   ›      ›   Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) belongs to the family of piculets and woodpeckers, the Picidae.

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar. These woodpecker species nest and roost in holes excavated by them in tree trunks. These woodpeckers are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) is a medium-sized woodpecker, measuring 17 to 20 cm in length and weighing about 25 to 40 gram.

These fulvous-breasted woodpeckers have black upperparts with heavy white barring. The forehead, lores, face, ear-coverts and throat are fulvous or white. The black malar stripe extends down the sides of neck to meet black line from breast.

The woodpecker breast and upper belly are buff (fulvous). The belly is finely streaked. The lower belly, vent region and undertail coverts are reddish. The black uppertail has white bars and spots on the outer feathers. The flanks have light barring.

The wings of the woodpecker are black with coverts and primaries having bold white barring. The black undertail has bold white barring. The males have red crown and the females have black crown. The juveniles have duller plumage.

The bill of the fulvous-breasted woodpecker is slaty gray. The irises are dark brown. The feet are slaty gray or greenish gray. Their call is a sharp, loud "tchick or skik " sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei
1.Birds of India - Image of Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei
by J.M.Garg

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2.Indian birds - Picture of Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei
by JJ Harrison

Indian birds - Image of Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei
3.Birds of India - Photo of Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei
by Tapas Biswas

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar.

In India, these species are distributed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram.

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker nominate subspecies D. m. macei is distributed in central and eastern Nepal, southern Bhutan, Bangladesh, northeast India, eastern peninsular India and north and western Myanmar.

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker subspecies D. m. westermani is distributed in north Pakistan, northwest India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh) and western Nepal.

Ecosystem and habitat

These fulvous-breasted woodpecker species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2800 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include, plantations, farmlands with tall trees and rural gardens.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these fulvous-breasted woodpecker species include, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, open forests, montane forests, secondary forests, dry forests, dry grasslands and shrublands and inland wetlands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this fulvous-breasted woodpecker consists mainly of insects. Arboreal insects, insect larvae, grasshoppers, locust, cicadas, crickets, beetles, ants, termites, fruits, berries are their primary food.

These woodpeckers are mostly arboreal and forage in mid-storey and canopy on tree trunks, branches and foliage. They have been observed to drop to ground for ants, termites and other prey.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these fulvous-breasted woodpecker species is from January to May in most of their range. They make courtship display by raising crest, by swinging movements and by fluttering aerial display.

The nesting sites of these woodpecker species are hollows in tree trunks and branches, excavated by the breeding pair. These species are monogamous and territorial. The clutch usually contains two to four white eggs. Both the parents incubate the eggs and care for the young.

Migration and movement patterns

These fulvous-breasted woodpecker species are non-migrant resident birds. The populations living in the higher altitudes descent to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements for feeding and breeding within their range.

Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Dendrocopos macei
  • Species author: (Vieillot, 1818)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Picus Macei Vieillot, 1818
  • Family: Picidae › Piciformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Fulvous-breasted woodpecker, Chinese: 纹腹啄木鸟, French: Pic de Macé, German: Isabellbrustspecht, Spanish: Pico pechileonado, Russian: Желтогрудый дятел, Japanese: コモンアカゲラ, Indonesian: Burung Caladi Ulam
  • Other names: Streaked-bellied woodpecker
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan
  • Diet and feeding habits: Insects, insect larvae, grasshoppers, locust, cicadas, crickets, beetles, fruits, berries
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this woodpecker species is reported to be rare to locally common. The generation length is 5.2 years. Its distribution size is about 2,630,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, fragmentation of the habitats and trapping for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of woodpecker species.

IUCN and CITES status

The fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) does not approached the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion, or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the woodpecker species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Dendrocopos macei
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Piciformes
Family:Picidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Dendrocopos
Species:D. macei
Binomial name:Dendrocopos macei
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The fulvous-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) is closely related to freckle-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos analis) and stripe-breasted woodpecker (Dendrocopos atratus).

The two recognized subspecies of the fulvous-breasted woodpecker are: Dendrocopos macei westermani (Blyth, 1870) and Dendrocopos macei macei (Vieillot, 1818).
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fulvous-breasted_Woodpecker_(Dendrocopos_macei)_at_Kolkata_I_IMG_3848.jpg (cropped)
Image author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dendrocopos_macei_-_Phra_Non.jpg (cropped)
Image author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fulvous_Breasted_Woodpecker.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Tapas Biswas | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Current topic in Birds of India: Fulvous-breasted woodpecker - Dendrocopos macei.
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Sunday, January 14

Blue-eared barbet

   ›      ›   Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis

The blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) belongs to the family of Asian barbets, the Megalaimidae.

The blue-eared barbet species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China. These barbet species are treated as conspecific with P. duvaucelii and P. australis by some authors. These barbets are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Blue-eared Barbet Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
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Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) is a comparatively small barbet, measuring 15 to 17 cm in length and weighing about 40 gram.

The blue-eared barbet has green upperparts. The underparts are yellowish green. The male has blue ear-coverts, mid-crown and throat. There are red patches above and below the blue ear-coverts. There is an orange cheek patch. The forehead is black.

There is a narrow diffuse black band between the throat and the breast. The undertail is pale and bluish. The female has duller color pattern. The juvenile had overall green plumage with bluish wash to the face and throat.

The bill of the blue-eared barbet is stout and dark and is fringed by bristles. The irises are dark brown. The feet are dark gray. Their call is a disyllabic, repetitive "tk-trrt..tk-trrt..tk-trrt" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis
1.Birds of India - Image of Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis by Jason Thompson

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2.Indian birds - Picture of Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis by Francesco Veronesi

Indian birds - Image of Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis
3.Birds of India - Photo of Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis by Lip Kee Yap

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The blue-eared barbet species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China.

In India, these species are distributed in the states of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram.

The blue-eared barbet nominate subspecies P. c. cyanotis is distributed in southeast Nepal, Bhutan, eastern Bangladesh, northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand and southern China.

The barbet subspecies P. c. orientalis is distributed in eastern Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The subspecies P. c. stuarti is distributed in peninsular Thailand.

Ecosystem and habitat

These blue-eared barbet species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1600 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include, plantations, orchards and rural gardens.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, broadleaf evergreen forests, mangroves and tropical and subtropical moist shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this blue-eared barbet consists mainly of fruits. Wild fruits, orchard fruits, berries, figs, drupes and insects are their primary food. These barbets are mostly arboreal and forage in mid-storey and canopy.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these blue-eared barbet species is from January to August in most of their range. In Vietnam, laying is observed in January. In Thailand the breeding season is from March to September.

The nesting sites of these species are hollows in tree trunks, excavated by the breeding pair. These species are monogamous and territorial. The clutch usually contains two white eggs. The nestlings are fed by the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

These blue-eared barbet species are non-migrant resident birds. The populations living in the higher altitudes descent to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range, they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Blue-eared barbet - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Psilopogon cyanotis
  • Species author: (Blyth, 1847)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Bucco cyanotis Blyth, 1847
  • Family: Megalaimidae › Piciformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Blue-eared barbet, Chinese: 蓝耳拟啄木鸟, French: Barbu à oreillons bleus, German: Blauohr-Bartvogel, Spanish: Barbudo orejiazul, Japanese: アオミミゴシキドリ, Indonesian: Takur Tenggeret
  • Other names: Blue-eared Barbet, Large-billed Barbet
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China
  • Diet and feeding habits: Fruits, berries, figs, insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this barbet species is reported to be common to locally very common. The generation length is 8.5 years. Its distribution size is about 3,270,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, fragmentation of the habitats, hunting and trapping for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of barbet species.

IUCN and CITES status

The blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) does not approached the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion, or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the barbet species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Psilopogon cyanotis
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Piciformes
Family:Megalaimidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Psilopogon
Species:P. cyanotis
Binomial name:Psilopogon cyanotis
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) is closely related to the Black-eared barbet (Psilopogon duvaucelii), Yellow-eared barbet (Psilopogon australis) and the Bornean barbet (Psilopogon eximius).

The three recognized subspecies of blue-eared barbet (Psilopogon cyanotis) are: Psilopogon cyanotis cyanotis (Blyth, 1847), Psilopogon cyanotis stuarti (Robinson & Kloss, 1919) and Psilopogon cyanotis orientalis (Robinson, 1915).
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/79492850@N00/8433016568/ (cropped)
Image author: Jason Thompson | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/14/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/francesco_veronesi/16222418069/ (cropped)
Image author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/14/18
3.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blue-eared_Barbet_(Psilopogon_duvaucelii_cyanoticus).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Lip Kee Yap | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/14/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Blue-eared barbet - Psilopogon cyanotis.
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Saturday, January 13

Forest owlet

   ›      ›   Forest owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti

The forest owlet (Heteroglaux blewitti) belongs to the family of typical owls and owlets, the Strigidae.

The forest owlet species is endemic to the forests of central India. These owlet species are listed as 'Endangered' by IUCN and are on the verge of extinction. These owlets are monotypic species.
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Appearance, physical description and identification

The forest owlet (Heteroglaux blewitti) is a comparatively small owlet, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 240 gram.

The upperparts are dark grayish brown. The underparts are whitish with dark barring. The facial disc is in shades of pale brown with fine barring. The crown and the forehead have faint, sparse pale spots. There is broad whitish supercilium. The upper breast is brown.

The bill of the owlet is short and pale yellow in color. The irises are yellow. The feet are pale gray with powerful claws. Their call is a series of plaintive notes and also hissing and screeching sounds.
Indian birds - Picture of Forest owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti
1.Birds of India - Image of Forest owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti by Nimtan

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2.Indian birds - Picture of Forest owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti by Ashahar alias Krishna Khan

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3.Birds of India - Photo of Forest owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti by Saurabhsawantphoto

Origin, geographical range and distribution

This owlet species is endemic to the forests of central India. It is distributed in the states of Gujarat (Purna Wildlife Sanctuary), Maharashtra (Melghat Tiger Reserve, Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary, Satpura Mountains, Toranmal Forest Range) and Madhya Pradesh (Khaknar and Piplod Forests and East and West Kalibhit Forests).

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these owlets in India are, Melghat Tiger Reserve, Taloda Reserve and Toranmal Reserve Forest.

Ecosystem and habitat

These owlet species have high forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 200 to 700 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include, tropical and subtropical moist lowland woods, dense deciduous woodlands, open dry deciduous teak woods and tropical and subtropical dry forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this owlet consists mainly of small vertebrates. Caterpillars, grasshoppers, lizards, frogs, small rodents and nestlings of other birds are their primary food.

These owlets had been observed to hide their prey in the hollow of tree trunks. These birds are diurnal and have been observed to hunt during the day. They hunt from perches.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these owlet species is from October and May in most of their range. The nesting sites of these species are hollows in softwood trees. These species are monogamous.

The clutch usually contains two white eggs. The male hunts and feeds the incubating female. The nestlings are fed by the parents. The chicks fledge after 30–32 days and are dependent on the parents for further 40-45 days.

Migration and movement patterns

These forest owlet species are non-migrant resident birds.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Forest owlet - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Heteroglaux blewitti
  • Species author: Hume, 1873
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Heteroglaux Blewitti A. O. Hume, 1873
  • Family: Strigidae › Strigiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Forest owlet, Chinese: 林斑小鸮, French: Chevêche forestière, German: Blewittkauz, Spanish: Mochuelo de Blewitt, Russian: Лесной сыч, Japanese: モリコキンメフクロウ
  • Other names: Forest Spotted Owlet, Blewitt's owl, Spotted Owlet
  • Distribution: endemic to India
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, caterpillars, grasshoppers, frogs, lizards, small rodents, nestlings of birds
  • IUCN status listing: Endangered (EN)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the owlet Heteroglaux blewitti is estimated to number about 250 to 999 mature individual birds. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this owlet species is reported to be scarce and rare. The generation length is 5.4 years. Its distribution size is about 55,300 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, fragmentation of the habitats, deforestation, hunting and trapping for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of this species.

IUCN and CITES status

The owlet Heteroglaux blewitti has approached the thresholds for being Endangered under the range size criterion, under the population trend criterion and under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the owlet species and has listed it as "Endangered".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Evaluated’ for forest owlet (Heteroglaux blewitti) and is listed under Appendix I.
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Heteroglaux blewitti
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Strigiformes
Family:Strigidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Heteroglaux
Species:H. blewitti
Binomial name:Heteroglaux blewitti
IUCN status listing:
Endangered
The forest owlet (Heteroglaux blewitti) is closely related to the spotted owlet (Athene brama) and the little owl (Athene noctua). Some authors place this species under the genus Athene.
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Forest_Owlet.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Nimtan | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Forest_Owlet_Athene_blewitti_by_Ashahar_alias_Krishna_Khan.jpeg (cropped)
Image author: Ashahar alias Krishna Khan | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SaurabhSawant_Forest_Owlet_Tansa_IMG_5997.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Saurabhsawantphoto | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
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Friday, January 12

Lesser coucal

   ›      ›   Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis

The lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) belongs to the family of cuckoos and coucals, the Cuculidae.

The lesser coucal species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and southeast Asia. Unlike other cuckoos, these coucal species are not brood-parasites. These coucals are polytypic species.
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Pictures of Lesser Coucal Distribution & Range
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Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) is a comparatively small coucal, measuring 30 to 40 cm in length and weighing 90 to 150 gram. There is size variation among the subspecies.

The overall plumage of the lesser coucal is black and the wings are rufous. In breeding plumage, the head and the upper back becomes glossy black with dark shafts to the feathers.

In non-breeding plumage, the feather shafts on the head and back become whitish.The tail is long. The central tail coverts are long and barred. The juveniles have pale brown feathers with barring.

The bill of lesser coucal is short, down-curved and yellowish. The irises are dark brown. The feet are blackish and the hind claw is long. Their call is a series of low "whoot..woot" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis
1.Birds of India - Image of Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis by 孫鋒 林

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2.Indian birds - Picture of Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis by Ron Knight

Indian birds - Image of Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis juvenile
3.Birds of India - Photo of Lesser coucal - Centropus bengalensis juvenile by Jason Thompson

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The lesser coucal species is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines and Timor-Leste.

In India, these lesser coucals are distributed in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram.

The lesser coucal nominate subspecies C. b. bengalensis is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The subspecies C. b. medius is distributed in Maluku Islands (Indonesia).

The coucal subspecies C. b. lignator is distributed in south and southeast China, Hainan (China) and Taiwan. The subspecies C. b. javanensis is distributed in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and and southwest Philippines.

The lesser coucal subspecies C. b. philippinensis is distributed in Philippines. The subspecies C. b. sarasinorum is distributed in the Talaud Islands, Sangihe Islands, Sulawesi Islands and the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.

Ecosystem and habitat

These lesser coucal species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1800 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical heavily degraded forests and cultivated lands.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include, open country, tropical and subtropical moist shrublands, marshlands, mangroves, swamps, peatlands and bamboo thickets.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the lesser coucal consists mainly of insects. Caterpillars and other insect larvae, grasshoppers, cicadas, crickets, locust, spiders and lizards are their primary food. They glean the insects from the foliage and branches as well as hawk them in the air.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these lesser coucal species is during May to September in India. The laying season is from December to July in Malaysia.

The nesting sites of these species are located in low trees and shrubs. The nest is a dome of grass blades and twigs. These coucal species are monogamous. Both parents take part in incubation and care of young. The clutch usually contains two to four eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

These lesser coucal species are non-migrant resident birds. The birds in the higher altitudes descent to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Lesser coucal - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Centropus bengalensis
  • Species author: (Gmelin, 1788)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Cuculus bengalensis J. F. Gmelin, 1788
  • Family: Cuculidae › Cuculiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Lesser coucal, Chinese: 小鸦鹃, French: Coucal rufin, German: Bengalenkuckuck, Spanish: Cucal bengalí, Russian: Малая шпорцевая кукушка, Japanese: バンケン, Indonesian: Bubut alang alang
  • Other names: Black Coucal, Lesser Coucal
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Timor-Leste
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, caterpillars, locust, cricket, cicadas, grasshoppers, mantids, beetles, spiders, lizards
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be increasing.

In most of its range, this coucal species is reported to be common and locally abundant. The generation length is 3.8 years. Its distribution size is about 21,100,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, hunting and trapping for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of this species.

IUCN and CITES status

The lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the coucal species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Centropus bengalensis
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Cuculiformes
Family:Cuculidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Centropus
Species:C. bengalensis
Binomial name:Centropus bengalensis
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The lesser coucal (Centropus bengalensis) is closely related to the black coucal (Centropus grillii) and the Philippine coucal (Centropus viridis).

The six recognized subspecies of the lesser coucal are: C. b. bengalensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1788), C. b. medius Bonaparte, 1850, C. b. lignator Swinhoe, 1861, C. b. sarasinorum Stresemann, 1912, C. b. javanensis Dumont de Sainte Croix, 1818 and C. b. philippinensis Mees, 1971.
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16150101550/ (cropped)
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Thursday, January 11

Grey-fronted green pigeon images

   ›      ›   Grey-fronted green pigeon - Treron affinis images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Photos
The grey-fronted green pigeon (Treron affinis) belongs to the family Columbidae under the order Columbiformes.

Grey-fronted green pigeon taxonomy

The family Columbidae comprises about 42 genera and 310 species. The family Columbidae was described by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in the year 1820.

The Columbidae comprises subfamilies like Columbinae, Claravinae, Treroninae and Raphinae. The subfamily Treroninae comprises five genera, viz., Alectroenas, Cryptophaps, Hemiphaga, Phapitreron and Treron.

The genus Treron comprises 29 species. The genus Treron was first described by Louis Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748 – August 24, 1830), a French ornithologist, in the year 1816.

The species Treron affinis was first introduced (as Vinago affinis) by Thomas Caverhill Jerdon (12 October 1811 – 12 June 1872), a British physician, zoologist and botanist, in the year 1840.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Treron affinis
Species:T. affinis
Genus:Treron
Subfamily:-
Family:Columbidae
Order:Columbiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Grey-fronted green pigeon - Treron affinis
1.Grey-fronted green pigeon - Treron affinis 317
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