Sunday, February 18

Spotted redshank

   ›      ›   Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus

The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) belongs to the family of sandpipers and redshanks, the Scolopacidae.

The spotted redshank species is distributed in northern Eurasia, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa, India and southeast Asia. These redshank species breed in arctic and subarctic zones. These redshanks are monotypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Spotted Redshank Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) is a large wader, measuring 30 to 33 cm in length and weighing 100 to 230 grams. The wingspan is 60 to 65 cm.

The breeding spotted redshank is blackish with white spots and speckles on the upperparts. The wintering birds are gray with white patterns. They have black or dark gray lore and cap.

The bill is long and half red and half black in color. The irises are blackish. There is white orbital skin. The feet are long and orange red in wintering birds. The call of these redshank species is a short, whistling "tee-u" or a rapid alarmed "kyip-kyip-kyip" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus
1.Birds of India - Image of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus by Michele Lamberti

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Birds of India - Photo of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus
2.Indian birds - Picture of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus by Michele Lamberti

Indian birds - Image of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus
3.Birds of India - Photo of Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus by Kaeptn chemnitz

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The breeding populations of the spotted redshank are distributed in Norway, Sweden, Finland and northern Russia.

The wintering redshank populations are distributed in southern Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia and southeast China.

In India, wintering spotted redshanks are distributed in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Goa.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these spotted redshanks in Russia are, Lapland Biosphere Reserve, North-east Sakhalin lagoons, Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya, Tyk and Viakhtu bays and Upper and Middle Yuribey.

The IBA of the spotted redshank species in Finland are, Saariselkä and Koilliskaira, Pori archipelago, Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira, Oulu region wetlands, Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju, Kevo and Käsivarsi fjelds.

The IBA of the spotted redshank species in Norway are, Varanger Peninsula, Røst, Reisa, Øvre Pasvik and Øvre Anárjohka. The IBA in Pakistan are, Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands and Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary.

Ecosystem and habitat

These spotted redshank species have low forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 100 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include agricultural fields, flooded pasturelands, ponds and water storage areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these spotted redshank species include, flooded grasslands, tundra grasslands, boreal forests, subarctic shrublands, freshwater lakes, rivers, streams, estuaries, marshes, mudflats, marine lakes and lagoons.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this spotted redshank consists mainly of invertebrates. Small crustaceans, molluscs, worms, insects, insect pupae and larvae, beetles, aquatic insects, amphibians and small fish are their primary food.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these spotted redshank species is during April and May in most of their breeding range. These species are monogamous and territorial.

The nesting sites of the spotted redshanks include open boggy taiga, heathland, shrub tundra, wooded tundra and open tundra. The nest is a shallow scrape on dry grass or sphagnum moss. The clutch contains 3-4 eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

These spotted redshank species are migratory birds. Breeding populations occur in Arctic and subarctic zones, spanning northern Europe and northern Asia.

The female spotted redshanks migrate southwards during June and the males migrate in July. The juveniles migrate during August to September. They reach the wintering grounds from August onwards. They return to the breeding grounds in April and May.

Spotted redshank - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Tringa erythropus
  • Species author: (Pallas, 1764)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Scolopax erythropus Pallas, 1764
  • Family: Scolopacidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Spotted redshank, Chinese: 鹤鹬, French: Chevalier arlequin, German: Dunkler Wasserläufer, Spanish: Archibebe oscuro, Russian: Щёголь, Japanese: ツルシギ, Indonesian: Burung Trinil Tutul
  • Other names: Dusky Redshank, Greater Redshank
  • Distribution: northern Europe, northern Asia, southern Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa, India, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, southeast China
  • Diet and feeding habits: fish, amphibians, aquatic insects, crustaceans, molluscs, worms, terrestrial insects, insect larvae
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) is estimated to number about 110,000 to 270,000 individual birds. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this redshank species is reported to be locally common to uncommon. The generation length is 5.6 years. Its distribution size is about 7,360,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, climate change, severe weather, hunting and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these redshank species.

IUCN and CITES status

The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the redshank species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Tringa erythropus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Tringa
Species:T. erythropus
Binomial name:Tringa erythropus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) is a monotypic species.
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1.Spotted redshank image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/60740813@N04/8360634865/ (cropped)
Image author: Michele Lamberti | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 2/18/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/60740813@N04/8361700004/ (cropped)
Image author: Michele Lamberti | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 2/18/18
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dunkler_Wasserlaeufer2.JPG (cropped)
Photo author: Kaeptn chemnitz | License: CC BY 3.0 as on 2/18/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Spotted redshank - Tringa erythropus.
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Saturday, February 17

Common ringed plover images

   ›      ›   Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) belongs to the family Charadriidae under the order Charadriiformes.

Common ringed plover taxonomy

The bird family Charadriidae was first described by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.

The Charadriidae comprises two subfamilies, namely, Vanellinae and Charadriinae. The Vanellinae comprises two genera, Erythrogonys and Vanellus.

The subfamily Charadriinae was first introduced by William Elford Leach, in the year 1820. It comprises eight genera, including genus Charadrius.

The genus Charadrius was first described by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1758. The type species is Charadrius hiaticula.

The species Charadrius hiaticula is polytypic and comprises three subspecies, viz., Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula tundrae (Lowe, 1915) and Charadrius hiaticula psammodromus Salomonsen, 1930.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Charadrius hiaticula
Species:C. hiaticula
Genus:Charadrius
Subfamily:-
Family:Charadriidae
Order:Charadriiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
1.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula 335
Image by Arnoldius

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Charadrius hiaticula
2.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Koskikara

Charadrius hiaticula
3.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Ken Billington / Focusing On Wildlife

Charadrius hiaticula
4.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
by Dûrzan

Charadrius hiaticula
5.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Zeynel Cebeci

Charadrius hiaticula
6.Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Zeynel Cebeci

Charadrius hiaticula
7.Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Francesco Veronesi

Charadrius hiaticula juvenile
8.Common ringed plover juvenile - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Charlesjsharp

Charadrius hiaticula egg
9.Common ringed plover egg - Charadrius hiaticula
Image by Didier Descouens

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1.Common ringed plover image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Arnoldius | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
2.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Koskikara | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
3.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Ken Billington | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
4.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Dûrzan | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
5.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Zeynel Cebeci | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 (cropped)
6.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Zeynel Cebeci | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 (cropped)
7.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/francesco_veronesi/15643302312/
Author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (cropped) as on 2/17/18
8.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Author: Charlesjsharp | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 (cropped)
9.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Charadrius_hiaticula_MHNT.jpg
Author: Didier Descouens | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 (cropped)
Current topic in Birds of India: Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula images.
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Common ringed plover

   ›      ›   Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula

The common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) belongs to the family of lapwings and plovers, the Charadriidae.

The common ringed plover species is distributed in northern Europe, northern Asia, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa and southeast India. These plover species breed in Arctic coast and Arctic tundra. These plovers are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Common Ringed Plover Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is a small plover, measuring 17 to 20 cm in length and weighing 40 to 80 grams. The wingspan is 50 to 60 cm.

The common ringed plover has grayish brown crown, back and wings. The underparts are white. There is a white neck band with a black band below it. The forehead, chin and throat are white. There is a black mask around the eyes. Juveniles have duller plumage.

The bill is short and orange in color with black tip. The irises are blackish. The feet are orange and the outer two toes are slightly webbed. Juveniles have blackish bill and yellowish legs. The call of these plover species is a mellow, whistling, "pee..pee" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
1.Birds of India - Image of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula by Koskikara

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Birds of India - Photo of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
2.Indian birds - Picture of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula by Arnoldius

Indian birds - Image of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula
3.Birds of India - Photo of Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula by Ken Billington / Focusing On Wildlife

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These common ringed plovers are distributed in Greenland, Iceland, northern Europe, northern Asia, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Lakshadweep (India) and west and southeast India.

In India, wintering common ringed plovers are distributed in the states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. They also occur in Lakshadweep Islands off the west coast of India.

The common ringed plover nominate subspecies C. h. hiaticula is distributed in Scandinavian countries, United Kingdom, northwest coast of France and coastal Belgium. The populations from Scandinavia migrates to Africa while rest of them are resident.

The common ringed plover subspecies C. h. psammodromus is distributed in northeast Canada, Greenland and Iceland. They winter in southwest Europe and western Africa.

The ringed plover subspecies C. h. tundrae is distributed in north Scandinavia and north Russia and northeast Russia. They winter in Caspian Sea, Middle East, southern Africa, southern India and Sri Lanka.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these common ringed plovers in France are, Cap Gris-nez, Camargue, Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin, Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes, Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin and Baie de Goulven.

Some of the IBA of the common ringed plovers in United Kingdom are, The Swale, Tiree and Coll, Severn Estuary, The Wash, South Down Coast, North Norfolk Coast, Morecambe Bay, Mid-Essex Coast, Mersey Estuary, Humber Estuary, Hamford Water and Benfleet and Southend Marshes.

Ecosystem and habitat

These common ringed plover species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 100 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include flooded agricultural fields and tropical and subtropical flooded pasturelands.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these common ringed plover species include, flooded grasslands, freshwater lakes, rivers, streams, estuaries, marshes, intertidal shorelines, mudflats, marine lakes and lagoons.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this common ringed plover consists mainly of invertebrates. Small crustaceans, molluscs, worms, insects, insect pupae and larvae, beetles, ants and flies are their primary food. They feed on the dry ground as well as on mud and shallow waters, locating their prey by sight.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these common ringed plover species is from April to July in most of their breeding range. These species are monogamous and territorial.

The nesting sites of the common ringed plovers include Arctic coast, Arctic tundra and sand or shingle beaches. The nest is a shallow scrape on dry open ground on the beach. The clutch contains 3-4 pale buff eggs with gray and brown spots.

Migration and movement patterns

These common ringed plover species are mostly migratory birds. Breeding populations occur in Arctic coast and Arctic tundra, spanning northeast Canada, Greenland, Iceland and northern Eurasia.

The common ringed plovers migrate southwards from August onwards for wintering. The return migration to the breeding grounds occurs in early summer. The populations in United Kingdom and coastal France and Belgium are resident breeders.

Common ringed plover - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Charadrius hiaticula
  • Species author: Linnaeus, 1758
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Charadrius Hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758
  • Family: Charadriidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Common ringed plover, Chinese: 剑鸻, French: Pluvier grand-gravelot, German: Sandregenpfeifer, Spanish: Chorlitejo grande, Russian: Галстучник, Japanese: ハジロコチドリ, Malay: Rapang Gelang Besar
  • Other names: Ring Plover, Semipalmated Plover
  • Distribution: Greenland, Iceland, northern Europe, northern Asia, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, southeast India
  • Diet and feeding habits: crustaceans, molluscs, worms, insects, insect larvae
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is estimated to number about 415,000 to 1,400,000 individual birds. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this plover species is reported to be locally common to uncommon. The generation length is 5.1 years. Its distribution size is about 40,400,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, climate change, severe weather, avian botulism, predation by feral species and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these plover species.

IUCN and CITES status

The common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the plover species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Charadrius hiaticula
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Charadriidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Charadrius
Species:C. hiaticula
Binomial name:Charadrius hiaticula
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is closely related to the semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and the long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus).

The three recognized subspecies of the common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) are: Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula tundrae (Lowe, 1915) and Charadrius hiaticula psammodromus Salomonsen, 1930.
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1.Common ringed plover image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Image author: Koskikara | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
2.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Image author: Arnoldius | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
3.Image source: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Image author: Ken Billington | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 (cropped)
Current topic in Birds of India: Common ringed plover - Charadrius hiaticula.
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Friday, February 16

Small minivet photos

   ›      ›   Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus photos
Taxonomic classification   <>   Photos
The small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) belongs to the family Campephagidae under the order Passeriformes.

Small minivet taxonomy

The family Campephagidae was first described by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist and politician, in the year 1825.

The family Campephagidae comprises six genera, viz., Coracina, Campochaera, Lalage, Campephaga, Lobotos and Pericrocotus.

The genus Pericrocotus was first introduced by Friedrich Boie (4 June 1789 – 3 March 1870), a German entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist and lawyer, in the year 1826.

The genus Pericrocotus comprises 14 species. The type species of this genus is Pericrocotus cinnamomeus (Linnaeus, 1766).

The species Pericrocotus cinnamomeus was first introduced by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist in the year 1766.

The species Pericrocotus cinnamomeus is polytypic and comprises nine subspecies, viz., P. c. cinnamomeus, P. c. saturatus, P. c. separatus, P. c. sacerdos, P. c. vividus, P. c. malabaricus, P. c. peregrinus, P. c. pallidus and P. c. thai.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Species:P. cinnamomeus
Genus:Pericrocotus
Subfamily:-
Family:Campephagidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
1.Small minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus 347
Photo by Hafiz Issadeen

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Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
2.Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Vivekpuliyeri

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
3.Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Rushen

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
4.Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Dhirajmy

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus female
5.Small minivet female - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Alnus

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
6.Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Gowthaman k.a

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
7.Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
by Gowthaman k.a

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
8.Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by J.M.Garg

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
9.Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Photo by Ady Kristanto

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1.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/25902645@N08/3437883266 (cropped)
Author: Hafiz Issadeen | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 2/15/18
2.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Small_Minivet (m).jpg (cropped)
Author: Vivekpuliyeri | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/15/18
3.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rushen/25838143941/ (cropped)
Author: Rushen | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/15/18
4.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Dhirajmy | License: Public domain
5.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Alnus | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/15/18
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Thursday, February 15

Small minivet

   ›      ›   Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

The small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) belongs to the family of cuckooshrikes and minivets, the Campephagidae.

The small minivet species is distributed in Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. These minivet species are common resident birds of the thorn jungles and shrubs in their range. These minivets are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Small Minivet Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) is a small bird, measuring 15 to 16 cm in length and weighing 6 to 12 grams. There is much plumage variance among the subspecies.

The male small minivet nominate subspecies has gray upperparts and orange underparts. The lower forehead is dark gray. The face, ear coverts, lore, chin and upper throat are blackish gray.

The belly and undertail are yellowish. The rump and outer tail feathers are orange. There is a orange wing patch. The female is gray on the upperparts and has whitish or pale creamy yellow underparts. It has dark gray lore.

The bill is strong, pointed and dark gray in color. The irises are blackish. The legs and feet are black. The call of these minivet species is a thin, whistling, "tswee-eet.tswee-eet" or "swee..swee.. swee" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
1.Birds of India - Image of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus by Vivekpuliyeri

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Birds of India - Photo of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
2.Indian birds - Picture of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus by Hafiz Issadeen

Indian birds - Image of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
3.Birds of India - Photo of Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus by Rushen

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These small minivets are distributed in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia.

In India, these small minivet species are distributed in all the states, except for the arid regions in Rajasthan. They are present in the Andaman Islands. In Indonesia, they are distributed only in Java and Bali Islands.

The small minivet nominate subspecies P. c. cinnamomeus is distributed in central and southeastern India and Sri Lanka. The subspecies P. c. peregrinus is distributed along the Himalayas and north India.

The small minivet subspecies P. c. pallidus is distributed in northwest India and Pakistan.The subspecies P. c. saturatus is distributed in Indonesia (Java and Bali).The subspecies P. c. separatus is distributed in southeast Myanmar and peninsular Thailand.

The minivet subspecies P. c. sacerdos is distributed in southern Vietnam and Cambodia. The subspecies P. c. thai is distributed in northeast Myanmar, northeast Thailand and Laos. The subspecies P. c. malabaricus is distributed in southwest India.

The small minivet subspecies P. c. vividus is distributed in central and eastern Himalayas, northeastern India, Bangladesh, west and central Myanmar, south Thailand and Andaman Islands (India).

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these minivets in Laos are, Xe Kong Plains, Nakai Plateau, Dong Khanthung, Dong Kalo and Attapu Plain. The IBA in Cambodia are, Western Siem Pang and Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands.

The IBA of the small minivet in Nepal are, Bardia National Park, Barandabhar forests, Dang Deukhuri foothill forests, Chitwan National Park, Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Ghodaghodi Lake and Dharan forests.

Ecosystem and habitat

These small minivet species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1500 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include agricultural lands and rural gardens.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these small minivet species include, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical dry forests, mangroves, deciduous forests and tropical and subtropical moist shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this small minivet consists mainly of insects. Insects, insect pupae and larvae, caterpillars, moths, beetles, grasshoppers, cicadas, crickets and locust are their primary food. They glean insect prey from the trees as well as flycatch.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these small minivet species is from February to November in most of their range. Sometimes they raise a second brood. These species are monogamous and territorial.

The nesting sites include tree branches and shrubs. The nest is a small cup-like structure made with twigs and leaves. The clutch contains two to four blotchy eggs. The chicks hatch out after 14 days of incubation. The incubation is mostly by the female.

Migration and movement patterns

These small minivet species are non-migrant resident birds. They disperse locally after breeding. The populations in higher altitudes descend to the lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Small minivet - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: [Motacilla] cinnamomea Linnaeus, 1766
  • Family: Campephagidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Small minivet, Chinese: 小山椒鸟, French: Minivet oranor, German: Zwergmennigvogel, Spanish: Minivet chico, Russian: Карликовый длиннохвостый личинкоед, Japanese: コサンショウクイ, Tamil: Chinna Min Chittu
  • Other names: Fiery Minivet, Lesser Minivet
  • Distribution: Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, insect larvae
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this minivet species is reported to be locally very common to uncommon. The generation length is not known. Its distribution size is about 13,100,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, deforestation and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these minivet species.

IUCN and CITES status

The small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the minivet species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Campephagidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Pericrocotus
Species:P. cinnamomeus
Binomial name:Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The nine recognized subspecies of the small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) are: P. c. cinnamomeus, P. c. saturatus, P. c. separatus, P. c. sacerdos, P. c. vividus, P. c. malabaricus, P. c. peregrinus, P. c. pallidus and P. c. thai.

The small minivet (Pericrocotus cinnamomeus) is closely related to the fiery minivet (Pericrocotus igneus).
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1.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Small_Minivet (m).jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Vivekpuliyeri | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/15/18
2.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/25902645@N08/3437883266 (cropped)
Photo author: Hafiz Issadeen | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 2/15/18
3.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rushen/25838143941/ (cropped)
Photo author: Rushen | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/15/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Small minivet - Pericrocotus cinnamomeus.
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