The speckled wood pigeon (Columba hodgsonii) belongs to the family of doves and pigeons, Columbidae.
These wood pigeon species are distributed in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. These pigeon species occur in altitudes from 1800 to 4000 meters. Throughout their range they are reported to be uncommon. The speckled wood pigeon is a monotypic species.
Speckled wood pigeon - Overview
- Scientific name: Columba hodgsonii
- Species author: Vigors, 1832
- Synonyms/Protonym: Columba Hodgsonii Vigors, 1832
- Family: Columbidae › Columbiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
- Vernacular names: English: Speckled wood pigeon, Chinese: 斑林鸽, French: Pigeon de Hodgson German: Schwarzschnabel-Oliventaube Spanish: Paloma de Hodgson, Russian: Гималайский голубь, Japanese: ゴマフバト
- Other names: Freckled Pigeon, Hodgson's Wood-Pigeon, Speckled Woodpigeon, Jungle Pigeon
- Distribution: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos
- Diet and feeding habits: fruits, berries, seeds, grains, cereals
- IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)
Appearance, physical description and identificationThe speckled wood pigeon (Columba hodgsonii) is a medium-sized pigeon, measuring 35 to 40 cm in length.
The nape is silvery with dark striations. The belly and the shoulder region are grayish maroon with speckles. The irises are black with gray bare eye circle. The bill and the feet are gray. The pigeon call is a faint "oo-oo-oo" sound.
|Indian birds - Picture of Speckled wood pigeon - Columba hodgsonii|
|Birds of India - Image of Speckled wood pigeon - Columba hodgsonii by Francesco Veronesi|
Origin, geographical range and distributionThese speckled wood pigeon species are distributed in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
In India, they are distributed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. In China, these species occur in the provinces, Gansu, Ningxia, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizho and Shaanxi.
The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of the speckled wood pigeon species in Nepal are Annapurna Conservation Area, Tamur valley and watershed, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Khaptad National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Langtang National Park and Mai Valley forests.
Ecosystem and habitatThese speckled wood pigeon species have moderate forest dependence. They inhabit temperate, montane ecosystems. These species inhabit temperate forests, subtropical montane shrublands, tropical submontane forests, tall evergreen hill forests, semi-evergreen oak forests and foothill forests. They occur in altitudes from 1800 to 4000 meters.
Diet and feeding behaviorThe diet of these speckled wood pigeon species is mostly wild fruits and berries. Apart from fruits, seeds of wild plants and grass, grains, cereals, shoots and buds are their primary food. They are mostly arboreal. They also feed from the ground.
Reproduction and breeding habitsThe breeding season of these speckled wood pigeon species is during May and June in northern India. The nest is a made of sticks and leaves on the fork of trees. and the clutch contains two or three eggs. Both the parents incubate the eggs. They also use tree holes and rock crevices to nest.
Migration and movement patternsThese speckled wood pigeon species are partially migratory, undertaking local and altitudinal movements in winter.
Conservation and survivalThe global population size of the speckled wood pigeon (Columba hodgsonii) has not been quantified. The overall population size of these species is considered to be stable. Throughout its range it is reported to be uncommon. The generation length is 5.6 years.
The speckled wood pigeon (Columba hodgsonii) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion. There are no substantial threats that may endanger the survival of these species.
IUCN and CITES statusThe IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the pigeon species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the speckled wood pigeon (Columba hodgsonii).
1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speckled_Wood_Pigeon_Aritar_Pangolakha_WLS_Sikkim_India_08.01.2014.jpg
Image author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Speckled_Wood-Pigeon_-_Bhutan_S4E0663.jpg
Image author: Francesco Veronesi from Italy | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 (as on 2016-12-28)
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