Wednesday, February 28

Long-billed plover images

   ›      ›   Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus images
Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) belongs to the family Charadriidae under the order Charadriiformes.

Long-billed plover taxonomy

The family Charadriidae comprises 66 species under two subfamilies, Vanellinae and Charadriinae. The family Charadriidae was introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.

The subfamily Charadriinae was also described by William Elford Leach in the year 1820. This subfamily comprises eight genera, viz., Pluvialis, Thinornis, Elseyornis, Peltohyas, Anarhynchus, Phegornis, Oreopholus and Charadrius.

The genus Charadrius (type species Charadrius hiaticula) was introduced by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1758.

The genus Charadrius comprises 31 species, including species Charadrius placidus. The species Charadrius placidus was introduced by Gray & Gray in the year 1863. The species Charadrius placidus is monotypic.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Charadrius placidus
Species:C. placidus
Genus:Charadrius
Subfamily:-
Family:Charadriidae
Order:Charadriiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
1.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus 339
Image by 孫鋒 林

Photos
Charadrius placidus
2.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by 孫鋒 林

Charadrius placidus
3.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by 孫鋒 林

Charadrius placidus
4.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by Alpsdake

Charadrius placidus
5.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by 孫鋒 林

Charadrius placidus
6.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by 孫鋒 林

Charadrius placidus
7.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by 孫鋒 林

Charadrius placidus
8.Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
Image by M.Nishimura

Charadrius placidus
9.Charadrius placidus
Image by 孟宪伟


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1.Long-billed plover image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/17682597261/(cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16179851876/ (cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16179852496/ (cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charadrius_placidus_japonicus.JPG (cropped)
Author: Alpsdake | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/27/18
5.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16203832191/(cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
6.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/15585872613/(cropped)
Author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
7.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/17682417115/(cropped)
Author:: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
8.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charadrius_placidus.jpg (cropped)
Author: M.Nishimura | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/27/18
9.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20090904%E5%B4%87%E6%AD%A6-%E7%8E%AF%E9%A2%88%E9%B8%BB.jpg (cropped)
Author: 孟宪伟 | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/27/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus images.
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Tuesday, February 27

Long-billed plover

   ›      ›   Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus

The long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) belongs to the family of lapwings and plovers, the Charadriidae.

The long-billed plover is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Russia and Japan. These plover species are mostly migratory. These plovers are monotypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Long-billed Plover Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) is a medium-sized plover, measuring 17 to 22 cm in length and weighing 40 to 70 grams. The wingspan is 45 cm.

The long-billed plover has grayish brown crown, back and wings. The forehead, chin and throat are white. There is a white neck band with a black band below it. Below the black band, there is a grayish brown half-band.

There is a black patch behind the forehead. There is a white supercilium. There is a grayish lore extending below eyes to cover the ear coverts. The underparts are white. Juveniles have brown upperparts.

The bill is comparatively longer than the common ringed plover. The bill has characteristic dark chocolate color. The irises are blackish. The legs and feet are pinkish yellow. The call of these plover species is a shrill and metallic, "chee..chee" or "cheep..cheep" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
1.Birds of India - Image of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus by Alpsdake


Images
Birds of India - Photo of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
2.Indian birds - Picture of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus by 孫鋒 林

Indian birds - Image of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus
3.Birds of India - Photo of Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus by 孫鋒 林

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These long-billed plover species are distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Russia and Japan.

In India, these long-billed plovers are distributed in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur. Vagrant plovers have been observed in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these long-billed plover species in North Korea are Chongdan field and Ongjin Bay. The IBA of these species in Japan is Hachirogata.

Ecosystem and habitat

These long-billed plover species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include flooded cultivated lands and flooded pastures.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include, freshwater lakes, rivers, streams, creeks, islands in the rivers and marine intertidal mudflats.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this long-billed plover consists mainly of insects. Small insects, flies, beetles and worms are their primary food.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these long-billed plovers is from March in their northern breeding range. Their breeding range is restricted to Japan, Russian Far East, China (north of Yangtze River and east of Sichuan) and northeast India (western Arunachal Pradesh).

The long-billed plovers nesting sites include beaches, lake-shores and stony river beds. They nest in depressions in sandy, shingle grounds among pebbles and rocks. The typical clutch contains four eggs (Wiersma 1996, Wilkinson et al. 2008).

Migration and movement patterns

These long-billed plover species are mostly migrant birds. The migratory breeding populations are distributed in northern Japan, Russian Far East, North Korea and China (north of Yangtze River and east of Sichuan). They migrate southwards for wintering.

Wintering long-billed plovers are distributed in northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, northern Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, south and southeastern China and South Korea. They return to the breeding grounds in early summer.

Non-migrant breeding resident populations occur in northeast India (western Arunachal Pradesh) and southern Japan.

Long-billed plover - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Charadrius placidus
  • Species author: Gray & Gray, 1863
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Charadrius placidus J. E. Gray and G. R. Gray, 1863
  • Family: Charadriidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Long-billed plover, Chinese: 长嘴剑鸻, French: Pluvier à long bec, German: Ussuriregenpfeifer, Spanish: Chorlitejo piquilargo, Russian: Уссурийский зуёк, Japanese: イカルチドリ, Indonesian: Cerek Paruh-panjang
  • Other names: Long-billed Ringed Plover
  • Distribution: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Russia, Japan
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, invertebrates
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) is estimated to number about 670 to 17,000 mature individual birds. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon to rare. The generation length is 5.2 years. Its distribution size is about 7,000,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction and hunting are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these plover species.

IUCN and CITES status

The long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the plover species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Charadrius placidus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Charadriidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Charadrius
Species:C. placidus
Binomial name:Charadrius placidus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The long-billed plover (Charadrius placidus) is closely related to common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula).
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1.Long-billed plover image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charadrius_placidus_japonicus.JPG (cropped)
Image author: Alpsdake | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 2/27/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16179851876/ (cropped)
Image author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/outdoor_birding/16179852496/ (cropped)
Image author: 孫鋒 林 | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 2/27/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Long-billed plover - Charadrius placidus.
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Monday, February 26

White-bellied minivet

   ›      ›   White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius

The white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius) belongs to the family of cuckooshrikes and minivets, the Campephagidae.

The white-bellied minivet is endemic to India. Until recently these minivet species were considered conspecific with P. albifrons. These minivets are monotypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of White-bellied Minivet Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
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Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius) is a small-sized minivet, measuring 15 to 17 cm in length.

The white-bellied minivets have whitish wing patch and orange on the rump. The sides of the tail are whitish. Males have blackish head and upperparts, whitish underparts and an orange breast patch. In females, the upperparts are grayish brown and the underparts are whitish.

The bill is strong, pointed and black in color. The irises are dark. The legs and feet are blackish. The call of these minivet species is a thin, whistling, "tswee..tswee" or "tsip..tsip" sound.
Birds of India - Image of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius
1.Indian birds - Image of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius by J.M.Garg


Images
Indian birds - Picture of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius
2.Birds of India - Image of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius by Mhtrivedi

Birds of India - Photo of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius
3.Indian birds - Picture of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius by Davidvraju

Indian birds - Image of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius
4.Birds of India - Photo of White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius by J.M.Garg

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These white-bellied minivet species are endemic to India.

These species are distributed in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Bihar.

Ecosystem and habitat

These white-bellied minivet species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include cultivated lands and fallow lands.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include, tropical and subtropical dry grasslands, dry savanna, tropical and subtropical dry shrublands and thorny thickets.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this white-bellied minivet consists mainly of insects. Grasshoppers, crickets, locust, cicadas, spiders and beetles are their primary food. They feed from the ground as well as from the branches of shrubs.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these white-bellied minivets is from June to October in most parts of India. These birds are monogamous and strongly territorial.

The nesting sites includes branches of shrubs and small trees. The breeding pair build a small cup-like structure with grass and plant fiber. The nest is lined with soft grass. The clutch contains 2-4 eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

These minivet species are non-migrant resident birds. They disperse locally after breeding. They also show nomadic behavior.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

White-bellied minivet - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Pericrocotus erythropygius
  • Species author: (Jerdon, 1840)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Muscicapa erythropygia Jerdon, 1840
  • Family: Campephagidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: White-bellied minivet, Chinese: 白腹山椒鸟, French: Minivet à ventre blanc, German: Weißbauch-Mennigvogel, Spanish: Minivet ventriblanco, Russian: Белобрюхий длиннохвостый личинкоед, Japanese: シロハラサンショウクイ
  • Other names: White-bellied Minivet
  • Distribution: endemic to India
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, grasshoppers, crickets, cicadas, locust, beetles, spiders
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon to rare. The generation length is not known. Its distribution size is about 2,480,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, hunting and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these species.

IUCN and CITES status

The white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Pericrocotus erythropygius
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Campephagidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Pericrocotus
Species:P. erythropygius
Binomial name:Pericrocotus erythropygius
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The white-bellied minivet (Pericrocotus erythropygius) is closely related to the Jerdon's Minivet (Pericrocotus albifrons). Earlier P. erythropygius was considered conspecific with P. albifrons.
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1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:White-bellied_Minivet_(Female)_I3_IMG_8066.jpg (cropped)
Image author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Image author: Mhtrivedi | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Image author: Davidvraju | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
4.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/ (cropped)
Image author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Current topic in Birds of India: White-bellied minivet - Pericrocotus erythropygius.
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Sunday, February 25

Great spotted woodpecker photos

   ›      ›   Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major photos
Taxonomic classification   <>   Photos
The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) belongs to the family Picidae under the order Piciformes.

Great spotted woodpecker taxonomy

The family Picidae are a group of near-passerine birds. The family Picidae was first introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820.

The family Picidae is divided into four subfamilies, viz., Jynginae, Nesoctitinae, Picumninae and Picinae. The subfamily Picinae was described by Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (24 May 1803 – 29 July 1857), a French biologist and ornithologist, in the year 1838.

The subfamily Picinae comprises 31 genera, including genus Dendrocopos. The genus Dendrocopos was first described by Carl Ludwig Koch (21 September 1778 – 23 August 1857), a German entomologist and arachnologist, in the year 1816.

The genus Dendrocopos comprises twelve species including species Dendrocopos major. The species Dendrocopos major was first described (as Picus major) by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1758.

The species Dendrocopos major is polytypic and comprises fourteen subspecies, viz., D. m. major, D. m. cabanisi, D. m. brevirostris, D. m. stresemanni, D. m. kamtschaticus, D. m. japonicus, D. m. pinetorum, D. m. poelzami, D. m. hispanus, D. m. numidus, D. m. harterti, D. m. thanneri, D. m. canariensis and D. m. mauritanus.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Dendrocopos major
Species:D. major
Genus:Dendrocopos
Subfamily:-
Family:Picidae
Order:Piciformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
1.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major 390
Photo by PeterRohrbeck

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Dendrocopos major
2.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by PeterRohrbeck

Dendrocopos major
3.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by Marcel Sahlmen

Dendrocopos major
4.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by Monika Gause

Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
5.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by P-O Rehnberg

Dendrocopos major
6.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by Andreas Eichler

Dendrocopos major
7.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by stuart Burns

Dendrocopos major
8.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by Aorg1961

Dendrocopos major
9.Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
Photo by Didier Descouens


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1.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht2ib.jpg (cropped)
Author: PeterRohrbeck | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
2.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht1ib.jpg (cropped)
Author: PeterRohrbeck | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht_2009.jpg (cropped)
Author: Marcel Sahlmen | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
4.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht-f%C3%BCttert-jungvogel.png (cropped)
Author: Monika Gause | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
5.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_spotted_woodpecker_(Dendrocopos_major).jpg (cropped)
Author: P-O Rehnberg | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
6.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2015.05.08.-02-Kaefertaler_Wald-Mannheim--Buntspecht-Weibchen.jpg (cropped)
Author: Andreas Eichler | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
7.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/41173345@N03/5755023022/ (cropped)
Author: stuart Burns | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 2/25/18
8.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dzi%C4%99cio%C5%82_du%C5%BCy_1.jpg (cropped)
Author: Aorg1961 | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
9.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dendrocopos_major_MHNT_232.jpg (cropped)
Author: Didier Descouens | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
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Saturday, February 24

Great spotted woodpecker

   ›      ›   Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major

The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), also known as greater pied woodpecker, belongs to the family Picidae.

The great spotted woodpecker is distributed in Europe, Asia, Mediterranean region, northwest Africa, northeast India, China and Japan. These woodpecker species have zygodactyl arrangement of the foot. These woodpeckers are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Great Spotted Woodpecker Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a medium-sized woodpecker, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 70 to 100 grams.

The upperparts of these great spotted woodpecker are glossy bluish black. The face, ear coverts and the sides of the hinder neck are white. The males have black nasal tufts and a crimson patch on the nape. The forehead is whitish or pale buff. The throat is white.

There is a large black patch on the sides of the throat and breast. This patch is connected to the bill, nape and shoulder by thick black lines. The flight feathers and the tail are barred black and white. There is a large white shoulder patch. The lower belly and undertail are red.

The bill is strong and black-horn in color. The irises are dark brown. The legs and feet are gray. The talons are blackish. The call of these great spotted woodpecker species is a series of rapid, repeated "kix" or "kic" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
1.Birds of India - Image of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major by PeterRohrbeck


Photos
Birds of India - Photo of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
2.Indian birds - Picture of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major by PeterRohrbeck

Indian birds - Image of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major
3.Birds of India - Photo of Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major by Marcel Sahlmen

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These great spotted woodpecker species are distributed in Europe and Asia, with an extensive range from British Isles to Japan. They also occur in northwest Africa, northeast India and northern parts of southeast Asia.

In India, the great spotted woodpeckers are distributed in the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. In China, these species are distributed in central, southern and eastern parts. Vagrants have been recorded in USA, Gibraltar, Ireland, Faroe Islands, Iceland and Hong Kong.

The great spotted woodpecker nominate subspecies D. m. major is distributed in the Scandinavian countries, western Russia, north Poland and north Ukraine. The subspecies D. m. stresemanni occurs in central China, northeast India, Myanmar and Yunnan (China).

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these great spotted woodpecker species in Spain are Vilaflor pine woodland, Tirajana pine woodland, Tauro pine woodland, Tamadaba pine woodland, Arico pine woodland, Tágara gully and Mountains of Barcelona.

Ecosystem and habitat

These great spotted woodpecker species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2500 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include heavily degraded forests, rural gardens, urban areas and plantations.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these great spotted woodpecker species include, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, broadleaved forests, montane forests, boreal forests, unmixed stands of conifers and temperate forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this great spotted woodpecker consists mainly of invertebrates. Wood boring insects and their larvae, other insects, crustaceans, molluscs, fruits, seeds, nuts and buds are their primary food. They are known to take eggs and nestlings of other birds.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these great spotted woodpeckers is from April to June in most of their range. These birds are monogamous and strongly territorial. Polyandrous behavior has been recorded in some cases.

The great spotted woodpecker courtship includes, flight display and spreading of tail. The breeding pair excavate a hole in a living or dead tree. The clutch usually contains four to six white, oval eggs. The chicks hatch out after 10-12 days of incubation and fledge 22 days later.

Migration and movement patterns

These great spotted woodpecker species are non-migrant resident birds. They disperse locally after breeding. Birds in higher altitudes move to lower altitudes in winter.

Post breeding, the juvenile spotted woodpeckers may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Great spotted woodpecker - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Dendrocopos major
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Picus major Linnaeus, 1758
  • Family: Picidae › Piciformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Great spotted woodpecker, Chinese: 大斑啄木鸟, French: Pic épeiche, German: Buntspecht, Spanish: Pico picapinos, Russian: Большой пёстрый дятел, Japanese: アカゲラ, Indonesian: Caladi
  • Other names: Greater Pied Woodpecker, Red-crowned Pied Woodpecker, Great woodpecker
  • Distribution: Europe, west,central and east Asia, Mediterranean region, northwest Africa, northeast India
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, seeds, nuts, fruits
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is estimated to number about 73,700,000 to 110,300,000 mature individual birds. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be increasing.

In most of its range, this great spotted woodpecker species is reported to be common to abundant. The generation length is 5.2 years. Its distribution size is about 57,800,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, hunting and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these woodpecker species.

IUCN and CITES status

The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Dendrocopos major
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Piciformes
Family:Picidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Dendrocopos
Species:D. major
Binomial name:Dendrocopos major
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is closely related to the Sind woodpecker (Dendrocopos assimilis), Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus), white-winged woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucopterus) and the Himalayan woodpecker (Dendrocopos himalayensis).

The fourteen recognized subspecies of great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) are: D. m. major, D. m. cabanisi, D. m. brevirostris, D. m. stresemanni, D. m. kamtschaticus, D. m. japonicus, D. m. pinetorum, D. m. poelzami, D. m. hispanus, D. m. numidus, D. m. harterti, D. m. thanneri, D. m. canariensis and D. m. mauritanus.
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1.Great spotted woodpecker photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht1ib.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: PeterRohrbeck | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
2.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht2ib.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: PeterRohrbeck | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buntspecht_2009.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Marcel Sahlmen | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
Current topic in Birds of India: Great spotted woodpecker - Dendrocopos major.
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