Golden-winged warbler | American birds

   ›      ›   Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera

The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) belongs to the family of New World warblers, the Parulidae.

The golden-winged warbler is distributed in USA, Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Caribbean islands. These species hybridize with blue-winged warblers. These warblers are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Golden-winged Warbler Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is a small New World warbler, measuring 11 to 12 cm in length and weighing 7 to 12 grams.

The male golden-winged warbler has bright golden-yellow patch on the forecrown. There is also a golden patch on the wing. There is a black throat patch and an black ear patch. There is a white supercilium.

The upperparts are bluish gray and the underparts are whitish gray. In females, the black patches are replaced by grayish patches.

The steel-gray bill is slender and sharp pointed. The legs are gray. The irises are blackish. There is a gray eye-ring. Their call is a trilling buzzy note or a buzzy "chip.. chip" sound.
Bird World - Image of Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
1.Bird World - Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
Image by California Department of Fish and Wildlife


Bird World - Image of Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
2.Bird World - Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
Image by Bettina Arrigoni

Bird World - Image of Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
3.Bird World - Golden-winged warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
Image by Kent McFarland

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The golden-winged warbler is distributed in northern USA, southern Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and several Caribbean islands.

Vagrant birds have been recorded in United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago, Sint Maarten (Netherlands), Barbados, Curaçao (Netherlands) and French Polynesia.

Ecosystem and habitat

The golden-winged warbler species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 2000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include pasturelands.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these warbler species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, temperate forests, grasslands and shrublands, moist shrublands and wetlands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these golden-winged warbler species consists mainly of insects. Larval insects, insects, moths, caterpillars, grasshoppers and spiders are their primary food.

They mostly forage for insects in the middle and lower canopy. They occasionally descent to the floor to feed on insects and small invertebrates.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of the golden-winged warbler species is from May to July in most of their breeding range. These birds are monogamous and nest solitarily. The breeding habitat is on the ground, hidden in bushes.

The nest is a bulky cup made with grass, rootlets and plant fiber. It is lined with hair, fine grass, shreds of bark and fine rootlets.

These species hybridize with blue-winged warbler to form two distinctive hybrids, the genetically dominant Brewster's warbler and the genetically recessive Lawrence's warbler.

Migration and movement patterns

These warbler species are fully migratory birds. The breeding populations occur in northern USA and southern Canada. They migrate to the wintering grounds in August and September.

The wintering populations of these species are distributed in Central America from southern Mexico to Panama, Caribbean islands and northern parts of South America. The return migration occurs in early summer.

Golden-winged warbler - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Vermivora chrysoptera
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Motacilla chrysoptera Linnaeus, 1766
  • Family: Parulidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Golden-winged warbler, Chinese: 金翅虫森莺, French: Paruline à ailes dorées, German: Goldflügel-Waldsänger, Spanish: Reinita alidorada, Russian: Золотистокрылая червеедка, Japanese: キンバネアメリカムシクイ
  • Other names: Golden-winged Warbler
  • Distribution: North America, South America
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, larval insects, caterpillars, spiders
  • IUCN status listing: Near Threatened (NT)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon. The generation length is 3.8 years. Its distribution size is about 2,080,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, severe weather, climate change and agricultural expansion are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the warbler species.

IUCN and CITES status

The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) species is approaching the thresholds for being Vulnerable under the range size criterion, under the population trend criterion and under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as "Near Threatened".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Vermivora chrysoptera
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Parulidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Vermivora
Species:V. chrysoptera
Binomial name:Vermivora chrysoptera
IUCN status listing:
Near Threatened
The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is closely related to the blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera).
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/californiadfg/22436077317/ (cropped)
Image author: California Department of Fish and Wildlife | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 11/3/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/barrigoni/41190419195/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Image author: Bettina Arrigoni | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 11/3/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vtebird/5710109295/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Image author: Kent McFarland | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 11/3/18
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Solitary cacique | American birds

   ›      ›   Solitary cacique - Cacicus solitarius

The solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius) belongs to the family of oropendolas and caciques, the Icteridae.

The solitary cacique is distributed in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. These cacique species have complete black plumage. These caciques are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Solitary Cacique Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius) is a medium-sized cacique, measuring 23 to 27 cm in length and weighing 80 to 90 grams.

The solitary cacique has overall black plumage with slight gloss. The head, upperparts, underparts and tail are black. The male birds are slightly larger than the females. The tail is long with a slight fork.

The bill is large, white, chisel-shaped and sharp pointed. The legs are blackish. The irises are brown. There is a gray eye-ring. Their call is a repeated "kwoo.. kwoo.. kwaa.. kwaa" sound.
Bird World - Image of Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
1.Bird World - Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
Image by Francesco Veronesi


Bird World - Image of Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
2.Bird World - Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
Image by Bernard DUPONT

Bird World - Image of black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
3.Bird World - Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
Image by Victoria DA.

Bird World - Image of black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
4.Bird World - Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
Image by Victoria DA.

Bird World - Image of Cacicus solitarius
5.Bird World - Solitary black cacique - Cacicus solitarius
Image by Victoria DA.

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The solitary cacique is distributed over southwest Venezuela, east Colombia, east Ecuador, east Peru, Brazil, central and east Bolivia, Paraguay, west Uruguay and north and east Argentina in South America.

Ecosystem and habitat

The solitary cacique species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 500 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tropical and subtropical mangroves, swamps and flooded forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these species consists mainly of invertebrates. Insects, worms, small invertebrates, fruits, berries and nectar are their primary food.

They mostly forage for insects and fruits in the middle and upper canopy. They occasionally descent to the floor to feed on insects and small vertebrates.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of the solitary cacique species is from October to January in Brazil. The laying season is from October to December in Argentina. In some cases two broods are raised.

These birds are monogamous and nest solitarily. The breeding habitat includes tall trees. The nest is a hanging nest woven with grass, rootlets and plant fiber.

Migration and movement patterns

These species are non-migratory, resident birds.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Solitary cacique - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Cacicus solitarius
  • Species author: (Vieillot, 1816)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Cassicus solitarius Vieillot, 1816
  • Family: Icteridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Solitary cacique, Chinese: 黑酋长鹂, French: Cassique solitaire, German: Stahlkassike, Spanish: Cacique solitario, Russian: Траурный чёрный кассик, Japanese: アオクロツリスドリ
  • Other names: Solitary Cacique, Solitary black cacique
  • Distribution: South America
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, small vertebrates, fruits, nectar
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996). The generation length is 4.6 years. Its distribution size is about 12,900,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and deforestation are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Cacicus solitarius
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Icteridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Cacicus
Species:C. solitarius
Binomial name:Cacicus solitarius
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The species Cacicus solitarius is closely related to the Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri).
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1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solitary_Cacique_-_Pantanal_-_Brazil_H8O0547_(23889343835).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 11/3/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/28639940053/ (cropped)
Image author: Bernard DUPONT | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 11/3/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/30206814@N00/4270297760/
Image author: Victoria DA. | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/3/18
4.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/30206814@N00/4269554201/in/photostream/
Image author: Victoria DA. | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/3/18
5.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/30206814@N00/4269551683/
Image author: Victoria DA. | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/3/18
Website for detailed description and information on distribution, habitat, behavior, feeding and breeding habits, migration and conservation status of beautiful birds with their images.


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Yellow-bellied siskin images

   ›      ›   Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) belongs to the family Fringillidae under the order Passeriformes.

Yellow-bellied siskin taxonomy

The Fringillidae is the family of siskins, canaries, grosbeaks and euphonias. The family Fringillidae was first introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in the year 1820.

The family Fringillidae comprises three subfamilies, viz., Fringillinae, Carduelinae and Euphoniinae. The subfamily Carduelinae was first described by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist, in the year 1825.

The subfamily Carduelinae comprises 184 species divided into 49 genera, including genus Spinus. The genus Spinus was first described by Carl Ludwig Koch (21 September 1778 – 23 August 1857), a German entomologist and arachnologist, in the year 1816.

The genus Spinus contains twenty siskin species, including Spinus xanthogastrus.

The species siskin S. xanthogastrus was first described by Bernard Amé Léonard du Bus de Gisignies (June 21, 1808 – July 6, 1874), a Dutch ornithologist and paleontologist, in the year 1855.

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Spinus xanthogastrus
Species:S. xanthogastrus
Genus:Spinus
Subfamily:-
Family:Fringillidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
1.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by julian londono


Spinus xanthogastrus
2.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Spinus xanthogastrus
3.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Spinus xanthogastrus
4.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Francesco Veronesi

Spinus xanthogastrus
5.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Franciscokarriere

Spinus xanthogastrus
6.Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Gomezprieto

Spinus xanthogastrus
7.Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Carol Foil

Spinus xanthogastrus
8.Spinus xanthogastrus female
Image by budgora
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aralcal/4265692522/ (cropped)
Author: julian londono | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 10/31/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/15660219993/ (cropped)
Author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: Public domain as on 10/31/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/15657667804/ (cropped)
Author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: Public domain as on 10/31/18
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yellow-bellied_Siskin_-_Panama_H8O1647_(22621596138).jpg (cropped)
Author: Francesco Veronesi | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 10/31/18
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pajaro,_mielero_comun.jpg (cropped)
Author: Franciscokarriere | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 10/31/18
6.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carduelis_xanthogastra.jpg (cropped)
Author: Gomezprieto | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 10/31/18
7.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dermoidhome/4133908423/
Author: Carol Foil | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 10/31/18
8.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/53816456@N08/34773552174/
Author: budgora | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 10/31/18
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Yellow-bellied siskin | American birds

   ›      ›   Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus

The yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) belongs to the family of finches and siskins, the Fringillidae.

The yellow-bellied siskin is distributed in Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. These siskin species are being illegally captured for caged-bird trade. These siskins are polytypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Yellow-bellied Siskin Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) is a small siskin, measuring 10 to 12 cm in length and weighing 11 to 14 grams.

The male yellow-bellied siskin has overall black plumage. The belly region and undertail coverts are yellowish. There is a yellowish patch on the black wing. The females and juveniles have olive green upperparts and pale yellowish green underparts.

The bill is pale gray, short, conical and sharp. The legs are short and grayish. The irises are blackish. There is a pale eye-ring. Their call is a soft whistling, twittering sound.
Bird World - Image of Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
1.Bird World - Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo


Bird World - Image of Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
2.Bird World - Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by julian londono

Bird World - Image of Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
3.Bird World - Yellow-bellied siskin - Spinus xanthogastrus
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The yellow-bellied siskin is distributed over Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia in South America. In North America, they occur in Costa Rica and Panama.

The siskin nominate subspecies S. x. xanthogastrus is distributed in Costa Rica, western Panama, north and northwest Venezuela, Colombia, western Ecuador and northwest Peru.

The subspecies S. x. stejnegeri is distributed in southwest Peru and west Bolivia.

Ecosystem and habitat

The yellow-bellied siskin species have low forest dependence. They normally occurs in altitudes between 1400 to 3700 meters.

The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include heavily degraded forests and coffee plantations.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these siskin species include tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, tropical and subtropical high altitude grasslands and high altitude shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the yellow-bellied siskin species consists mainly of plant matter like seeds and leaves. Berries, insects, leaves and seeds are their primary food.

They mostly forage for insects and flowers in the middle and upper canopy. They occasionally descent to the floor to feed on insects.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of the yellow-bellied siskin species is from March to May. These birds are monogamous and territorial. The breeding habitat includes small trees with thick foliage.

The siskin nest is a thick cup woven with rootlets, plant fiber and lichen. The female incubates the eggs. The clutch contains 2-3 white eggs with greenish tinge.

Migration and movement patterns

The yellow-bellied siskin species are non-migratory, resident birds. The populations living in higher elevation move down to lower levels during the winter months.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Yellow-bellied siskin - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Spinus xanthogastrus
  • Species author: ( Du Bus de Gisignies), 1855
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Chrysomitris xanthogastra du Bus de Gisignies, 1855
  • Family: Fringillidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Yellow-bellied siskin Chinese: 黄腹金翅雀, French: Tarin à ventre jaune, German: Gelbbauchzeisig, Spanish: Jilguero ventriamarillo, Russian: Желтобрюхий чиж, Japanese: キバラクロヒワ
  • Other names: Yellow-bellied Siskin
  • Distribution: North America, South America
  • Diet and feeding habits: seeds, insects, flowers
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be 'fairly common but patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996). The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 4,480,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and capture of adult and juvenile bird for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the siskin species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Spinus xanthogastrus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Fringillidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Spinus
Species:S. xanthogastrus
Binomial name:Spinus xanthogastrus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) is closely related to the hooded siskin (Spinus magellanicus).

The two recognized subspecies of the yellow-bellied siskin (Spinus xanthogastrus) are:
Spinus xanthogastrus xanthogastrus (du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) and
Spinus xanthogastrus stejnegeri (Sharpe, 1888).
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1.Yellow-bellied siskin image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/15660219993/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: Public domain as on 10/31/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aralcal/4265692522/ (cropped)
Image author: julian londono | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 10/31/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/15657667804/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: Public domain as on 10/31/18
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Great knot images

   ›      ›   Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) belongs to the family Scolopacidae under the order Charadriiformes.

Great knot taxonomy

The Scolopacidae is the family of sandpipers, curlews, snipes, knots and turnstones.

The family Scolopacidae was first introduced by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (22 October 1783 – 18 September 1840), a zoologist, botanist, writer and polyglot, in the year 1815.

The family Scolopacidae comprises fifteen genera, including genus Calidris. The genus Calidris is the genus of knots and sandpipers. The genus Calidris comprises twenty-four species, including Calidris tenuirostris.

The genus Calidris was first described by Blasius Merrem (4 February 1761 – 23 February 1824), a German naturalist, zoologist, ornithologist, mathematician and herpetologist, in the year 1804.

The species Calidris tenuirostris was first described by Thomas Horsfield M.D. (May 12, 1773 – July 24, 1859), an American physician and naturalist, in the year 1821.

The knot species Calidris tenuirostris is monotypic. With drastic decline in numbers, especially in the passage grounds, the Calidris tenuirostris is listed as Endangered by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature).

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Calidris tenuirostris
Species:C. tenuirostris
Genus:Calidris
Subfamily:-
Family:Scolopacidae
Order:Charadriiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
1.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by JJ Harrison


Calidris tenuirostris
2.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Hiyashi Haka

Calidris tenuirostris
3.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Hiyashi Haka

Calidris tenuirostris
4.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by julie burgher

Calidris tenuirostris
5.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Tony Morris

Calidris tenuirostris
6.Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Brian McCauley

Calidris tenuirostris
7.Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Jerry Oldenettel

Calidris tenuirostris
8.Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Aviceda

Calidris tenuirostris
9.Calidris tenuirostris
Image by 台灣水鳥研究群 彰化海岸
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1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_tenuirostris_-_Laem_Phak_Bia.jpg (cropped)
Author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 10/30/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hiyashi/6959877850/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Author: Hiyashi Haka | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hiyashi/7105946775/ (cropped)
Author: Hiyashi Haka | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
4.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_tenuirostris_-_Great_Knot.jpg (cropped)
Author: julie burgher | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
5.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tonymorris/20358099888/ (cropped)
Author: Tony Morris | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 10/30/18
6.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/129013862@N04/41020647331/ (cropped)
Author: Brian McCauley | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 10/30/18
7.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jroldenettel/6050099369/ (cropped)
Author: Jerry Oldenettel | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
8.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Aviceda | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 10/30/18
9.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/waders/136931717/ (cropped)
Author: 台灣水鳥研究群 彰化海岸 | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
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Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris images.

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Great knot

   ›      ›   Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris

The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) belongs to the family of sandpipers and knots, the Scolopacidae.

The great knot is distributed in far northeast Russia, coastal Australia, southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and eastern Arabian Peninsula. These knot species are listed as "Endangered" by IUCN. These knots are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Eastern Knot Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) is a large knot, measuring 25 to 30 cm in length and weighing 115 to 250 grams. The wingspan is 55 to 65 cm.

The great knot has grayish upperparts with dark brown mottling. The head and breast have dark streaking. The underparts are white with scattered spotting. The wintering birds are paler.

The bill is medium-sized, thin and dark. The legs are short and grayish. The irises are dark brown. There is a pale eye-ring. Their call is a soft whistling, twittering sound.
Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
1.Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Hiyashi Haka


Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
2.Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by JJ Harrison

Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
3.Bird World - Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris
Image by Hiyashi Haka

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The great knot is distributed in northeast Siberia (Russia), Australia, southeast Asia, Bangladesh, India (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, Pakistan and the eastern Arabian Peninsula.

Vagrant great knots have been recorded in USA, United Kingdom, Middle East, Spain, Norway, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark and New Zealand.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these great knot species in UAE are Marawah Island, Khor Al Beidah and Khor Al Beidah. The IBA in Singapore are Ubin-Khatib and Ubin-Khatib. The IBA in Saudi Arabia is Tarut Bay.

The IBA in Russia are Rekinninskaya bay, Perevolochny bay, Ola lagoon, Moroshechnaya River, Malakchan bay, Khayryuzova bay and Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs. The IBA in Malaysia is Sadong-Saribas coast.

Ecosystem and habitat

The great knot species does not normally occur in forest. It normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 1600 meters.

The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include coastal water storage tanks and coastal aquaculture facilities.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these great knot species include subarctic grasslands, tundra grasslands, large lakes of Arctic region, marine lakes, mudflats, shorelines, estuaries and tide pools.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the species consists mainly of plant matter like berries in the breeding grounds. Berries, insects, spiders, molluscs, crustaceans, annelid worms and echinoderms are their primary food during the winter and on passage.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of the great knot species is during subarctic summer in May and June. These birds are monogamous and territorial. The breeding habitat includes plateaux or gentle slopes with montane tundra.

They nest in depression in moss. The clutch contains four eggs. The chicks hatch out after 22 days of incubation and fledge after 20 days. The male knot care for the hatchlings while the female moves southwards soon after hatching of the eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

The great knot species is fully migratory. The breeding populations occur in northeast Siberia (Russia). They migrate southwards in July, mainly to Australia for wintering, making several stopovers enroute.

The wintering populations of the knot species are mainly distributed in Australia. The return migration to the breeding grounds occurs from March to April.

These knots also winter in the southeast Asian coastline, coasts of Bangladesh, India (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands) and Pakistan and the eastern coast of of the Arabian Peninsula (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Great knot - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Calidris tenuirostris
  • Species author: (Horsfield, 1821)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield, 1821,
  • Family: Scolopacidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Great knot Chinese: 大滨鹬, French: Bécasseau de l’Anadyr, German: Großer Knutt, Spanish: Correlimos grande, Russian: Большой песочник, Japanese: ヒメハクガン
  • Other names: Great Knot, Eastern Knot
  • Distribution: Asia, Australia
  • Diet and feeding habits: plant material, berries, insects, molluscs, crustaceans, worms
  • IUCN status listing: Endangered (EN)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) is estimated to number about 292,000 to 295,000 individual birds (Wetlands International 2015). The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon to rare. The generation length is 7.4 years. Its distribution size is about 1,920,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, severe weather, climate change, loss of stopover habitats, oil exploration and pollution are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) species has approached the thresholds for being Vulnerable under the range size criterion, under the population trend criterion and under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the knot species and has listed it as "Endangered".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Calidris tenuirostris
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Calidris
Species:C. tenuirostris
Binomial name:Calidris tenuirostris
IUCN status listing:
Endangered
The great knot (Calidris tenuirostris) is closely related to the red knot (Calidris canutus) and surfbird (Calidris virgata).
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1.Great knot image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hiyashi/6959877850/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Author: Hiyashi Haka | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
2.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_tenuirostris_-_Laem_Phak_Bia.jpg (cropped)
Author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 10/30/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hiyashi/7105946775/ (cropped)
Author: Hiyashi Haka | License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 as on 10/30/18
Website for detailed description and information on distribution, habitat, behavior, feeding and breeding habits, migration and conservation status of beautiful birds with their images.


Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Great knot - Calidris tenuirostris.

Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.