Tuesday, April 24

White-spotted fantail images

   ›      ›   White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images
The white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) belongs to the family Rhipiduridae under the order Passeriformes.

White-spotted fantail taxonomy

The Rhipiduridae is the family of small insectivorous birds. The family Rhipiduridae was first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall (22 October 1801, Högestad – 2 February 1875), a Swedish zoologist, in the year 1872.

The family Rhipiduridae comprises three genera, viz., the genus Rhipidura, genus Lamprolia and the genus Chaetorhynchus.

The genus Rhipidura was first introduced by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist and politician and Thomas Horsfield M.D. (May 12, 1773 – July 24, 1859), an American physician and naturalist, in the year 1827.

The genus Rhipidura comprise 49 species, including Rhipidura albogularis. The species Rhipidura albogularis was first described by René Primevère Lesson (20 March 1794 – 28 April 1849), a French surgeon, naturalist, ornithologist and herpetologist, in the year 1831.

The species Rhipidura albogularis is polytypic and comprises subspecies Rhipidura albogularis albogularis and Rhipidura albogularis vernayi.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Rhipidura albogularis
Species:R. albogularis
Genus:Rhipidura
Subfamily:-
Family:Rhipiduridae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
1.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis 330
Image by Antony Grossy


Rhipidura albogularis
2.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Koshy Koshy

Rhipidura albogularis
3.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Antony Grossy

Rhipidura albogularis
4.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Tsrawal

Rhipidura albogularis
5.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Tsrawal

Rhipidura albogularis
6.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Antony Grossy

Rhipidura albogularis
7.White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
Image by Vivek Puliyeri
Popular posts on Birds
Common redshank Black-naped tern
Andaman green pigeon Boreal owl
Crimson-breasted barbet Darjeeling woodpecker
Small minivet Common ringed plover
Violet cuckoo Roseate tern
Yellow-footed green pigeon Brown hawk-owl
Sind woodpecker Long-tailed minivet
Little owl Crimson-throated barbet
Stripe-breasted woodpecker Blue-throated barbet
Black-headed cuckooshrike Mangrove whistler
Eurasian collared dove Black-tailed godwit
Little ringed plover Marsh sandpiper
Common tern Pin-tailed green pigeon
Grey-headed lapwing Common snipe
Mew gull Andaman cuckoo-dove
Green-billed malkoha Collared owlet
Lineated barbet Slender-billed gull
Hume's hawk-owl Himalayan woodpecker
Short-billed minivet Woodchat shrike
Silver-breasted broadbill Blue pitta
Malabar woodshrike Ashy woodswallow
Common iora Large cuckooshrike
Laughing dove Fork-tailed drongo-cuckoo
Eurasian golden oriole Black drongo
Long-billed plover Tawny owl
Crab-plover Beach thick-knee
Ibisbill Black-winged stilt
Pied avocet Northern lapwing
Pintail snipe Oriental pratincole
Ashy minivet Black-bellied plover

1.White-spotted fantail image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/atony/6965322672/ (cropped)
Author: Antony Grossy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/16551227560/ (cropped)
Author: Koshy Koshy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/atony/8029531937/ (cropped)
Author: Antony Grossy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Image author: Tsrawal | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/23/18
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Author: Tsrawal | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/23/18
6.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/atony/8079695929/ (cropped)
Author: Antony Grossy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
7.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spot-breasted_Fantail_(Rhipidura_albogularis).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Vivek Puliyeri | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 4/23/18
Current topic in Birds of India: White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis images.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.

Monday, April 23

White-spotted fantail

   ›      ›   White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis

The white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) belongs to the family of fantails and silktails, the Rhipiduridae.

The white-spotted fantail species is endemic to central and southern India. These fantail species were formerly considered a subspecies of the white-throated fantail. These species are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of White-spotted Fantail Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) is a small sized fantail, measuring 14 to 17 cm in length and weighing 10 to 14 grams.

The white-spotted fantail species has slaty brown upperparts. The wings are slaty gray. The crown is dark gray. There is a whitish supercilium. There is a black eye mask. The throat is whitish.

The underparts are whitish. The gray breast is spotted white. The tail is long, slaty, with very pale edges to the tail feathers. The undertail is pale.

The bill is black. The irises are black. There is a dark gray eye-ring. The legs are dark gray. The call of these spotted fantail species is a pleasant, repeated, musical sound.
Indian birds - Image of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
1.Birds of India - Photo of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis by Koshy Koshy


Birds of India - Photo of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
2.Indian birds - Photo of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis by Antony Grossy

Indian birds - Photo of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis
3.Birds of India - Photo of White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis by Antony Grossy

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These white-spotted fantail species are endemic to India.

The subspecies R. a. albogularis is distributed in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The subspecies R. a. vernayi is distributed in south Odisha and northeast Andhra Pradesh.

Ecosystem and habitat

These white-spotted fantail species have medium forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include rural gardens, plantations, agricultural lands, parks and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, foothill forests, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, dry forests, scrub jungles and secondary forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these white-spotted fantail species consists mainly of insects. Flying insects, dragonflies, moths, beetles, winged termites and ants, grasshoppers, crickets, cicadas, locust and insect larvae are their primary food.

These fantail species glean their prey from foliage as well as flycatch. They forage in undergrowth, lower and middle storeys. Occasionally they are seen flycatching in the canopy.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these white-spotted fantail species is from March and July. Occasionally they may raise a second brood.

These fantail species are monogamous and territorial. The nesting sites are located on tree branches. The nest is a compact conical structure. Both the fantail parents take part in nest building.

The nest is built with grass, twigs, reeds, moss, leaves, and plant fibers. The clutch contains three eggs. The eggs are incubated by both the parents. The hatchlings are care for by both the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

These white-spotted fantail species are non-migratory resident birds. The populations in higher altitudes descent to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, juvenile fantails may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

White-spotted fantail - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Rhipidura albogularis
  • Species author: (Lesson, 1831)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Musicapa (Muscylva) albogularis Lesson, 1832
  • Family: Rhipiduridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: White-spotted fantail, Chinese: 白点扇尾鹟, French: Rhipidure à poitrine, tachetée German: Indienfächerschwanz, Spanish: Abanico pechipinto, Russian: Белогорлая веерохвостка, Japanese: ムナボシオウギビタキ
  • Other names: spot-breasted fantail, White-spotted Fantail
  • Distribution: endemic to India
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, flying insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be common. The generation length is 4.9 years. Its distribution size is about 1,920,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, agricultural expansion, reduction in prey population are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these fantail species.

IUCN and CITES status

The white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the fantail species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Rhipidura albogularis
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Rhipiduridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Rhipidura
Species:R. albogularis
Binomial name:Rhipidura albogularis
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) is closely related to Rhipidura albicollis. The Rhipidura albogularis was considered conspecific with R. albicollis.

The two recognized subspecies of the white-spotted fantail (Rhipidura albogularis) are: Rhipidura albogularis albogularis (Lesson, 1832) and Rhipidura albogularis vernayi (Whistler, 1931).
Popular posts in Birds of India
Common redshank Black-naped tern
Sandwich tern Grey-fronted green pigeon
Lesser coucal Forest owlet
Blue-eared barbet Fulvous-breasted woodpecker
Blue-winged pitta Rosy minivet
Yellow-footed green pigeon Brown hawk-owl
Sind woodpecker Long-tailed minivet
Lord Derby's parakeet Lesser cuckoo
Rock eagle-owl Indian nightjar
Brown-backed needletail Stork-billed kingfisher
Blue-tailed bee-eater Malabar pied hornbill
Little ringed plover Marsh sandpiper
Common tern Pin-tailed green pigeon
Collared scops owl European nightjar
Slaty-breasted rail Western water rail
Eastern water rail Corncrake
Brown crake Osprey
Hume's hawk-owl Himalayan woodpecker
Short-billed minivet Woodchat shrike
Egyptian vulture Oriental darter
Indian vulture Slender-billed vulture
Himalayan vulture Griffon vulture
Cinereous vulture Red-headed vulture
Eurasian golden oriole Black drongo
Long-billed plover Tawny owl
Great frigatebird Christmas frigatebird
Masked booby Red-footed booby
Brown booby Indian cormorant
Great cormorant Little cormorant
Ashy minivet Grey plover

1.White-spotted fantail photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/16551227560/ (cropped)
Photo author: Koshy Koshy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
2.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/atony/6965322672/ (cropped)
Photo author: Antony Grossy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
3.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/atony/8029531937/ (cropped)
Photo author: Antony Grossy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/23/18
Current topic in Birds of India: White-spotted fantail - Rhipidura albogularis.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.

Sunday, April 22

Ashy drongo

   ›      ›   Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus

The ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) belongs to the family of drongos, the Dicruridae.

The ashy drongo species is distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, southeast Asia and China. These drongo species have plumage of varying shades of gray. These drongos are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Ashy Drongo Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) is a medium sized drongo, measuring 25 to 30 cm in length and weighing 40 to 55 grams.

The ashy drongo species have gray plumage, varying in shades among the subspecies. Some subspecies have whitish markings on the head and body. The underparts are paler than the upperparts. The tail is long and deeply forked.

The bill is black and the tip of the upper mandible is hooked. The irises are red. There is a red eye-ring. The legs are short and dark gray. The call of these ashy drongo species is a pleasant repeated "cheep..chip..chip" or "cheerp..chirp..chirp" sound.
Birds of India - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus
1.Indian birds - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus by Garima Bhatia


Indian birds - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus
2.Birds of India - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus by Jameela P.

Birds of India - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus
3.Indian birds - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus by Koshy Koshy

Indian birds - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus
4.Birds of India - Image of Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus by Koshy Koshy

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These ashy drongo species are distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and China.

In India, the wintering drongo species are distributed in all the states, except for Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

The ashy drongo subspecies D. l. longicaudatus, D. l. hopwoodi, D. l. leucogenis, D. l. salangensis and D. l. mouhoti are migratory. The ashy drongo subspecies D. l. nigrescens, D. l. innexus, D. l. bondi, D. l. celaenus, D. l. leucophaeus, D. l. whiteheadi, D. l. batakensis, D. l. phaedrus, D. l. siberu, D. l. periophthalmicus and D. l. stigmatops are resident birds.

Ecosystem and habitat

These ashy drongo species have low forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2400 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include rural gardens, plantations, agricultural lands and heavily degraded forests.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these drongo species include tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, foothill forests, temperate forests, lowland forests, dry savanna, mangroves, dry shrublands and moist shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these ashy drongo species consists mainly of insects. Flying insects, dragonflies, moths, beetles, winged termites and ants, grasshoppers, crickets, cicadas, locust and insect larvae are their primary food.

These ashy drongo species are also known to feed on nectar, small lizards, small mammals, eggs and hatchlings. They perch on prominent places and make aerial sallies to catch the prey. They also glean their prey from the foliage.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these ashy drongo species is during May and June in India, Pakistan and Nepal. The laying season is from April to June in China. The breeding season is during April in Myanmar.

These drongo species are monogamous and territorial. The nesting sites are located on tree branches. The nest is a loose cup-shaped structure. Both the parents take part in nest building.

The nest is built with grass, twigs, sedges, reeds, creeper strings, leaves and plant fibers. The clutch contains three to five pale red or brown eggs with speckles. The eggs are incubated by both the parents. The hatchlings are cared for by both the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

These ashy drongo species are partially migratory birds. The migratory breeding populations are distributed in northern Afghanistan, Himalayas (Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan), north Myanmar and central and east China.

The migratory breeding populations move southwards from September-October onwards to India (except arid regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat), Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and south Malaysian peninsula for wintering.

There are resident ashy drongo breeding populations in southeast China, Myanmar, India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines.

Post breeding, the resident juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Ashy drongo - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Dicrurus leucophaeus
  • Species author: Vieillot, 1817
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Dicrurus leucophœus Vieillot, 1817
  • Family: Dicruridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Ashy drongo, Chinese: 灰卷尾, French: Drongo cendré German: Graudrongo Spanish: Drongo cenizo, Russian: Серый дронго, Japanese: ハイイロオウチュウ, Malay: Cecawi Kelabu
  • Other names: Gray Drongo, White-cheeked Drongo
  • Distribution: Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, China
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, nectar
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is not known.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be common to uncommon (Grimmett et al. 1998). The generation length is not known. Its distribution size is about 21,200,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, agricultural expansion, reduction in prey population and trapping for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these species.

IUCN and CITES status

The ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the drongo species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the ashy drongo (Dicrurus leucophaeus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Dicrurus leucophaeus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Dicruridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Dicrurus
Species:D. leucophaeus
Binomial name:Dicrurus leucophaeus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The sixteen recognized subspecies of the ashy drongo are: D. l. longicaudatus, D. l. hopwoodi, D. l. leucogenis, D. l. salangensis, D. l. mouhoti, D. l. nigrescens, D. l. innexus, D. l. bondi, D. l. celaenus, D. l. leucophaeus, D. l. whiteheadi, D. l. batakensis, D. l. phaedrus, D. l. siberu, D. l. periophthalmicus and D. l. stigmatops.
Popular posts in Birds of India
Common redshank Black-naped tern
Chestnut-winged cuckoo Common barn-owl
Mountain scops-owl Hodgson's frogmouth
Jungle nightjar Glossy swiftlet
Malabar trogon Hill pigeon
Yellow-footed green pigeon Brown hawk-owl
Sind woodpecker Long-tailed minivet
Slaty-headed parakeet Large hawk-cuckoo
Oriental bay owl Indian scops owl
Grey nightjar Indian swiftlet
Red-headed trogon Tibetan sandgrouse
Little ringed plover Marsh sandpiper
Common tern Pin-tailed green pigeon
Snow pigeon Grey-headed parakeet
Common hawk-cuckoo Sri Lanka bay owl
Collared scops owl European nightjar
Slaty-breasted rail Western water rail
Hume's hawk-owl Himalayan woodpecker
Short-billed minivet Woodchat shrike
Eastern water rail Corncrake
Brown crake White-browed crake
White-breasted waterhen Black-tailed crake
Little crake Baillon's crake
Eurasian golden oriole Slaty-legged crake
Long-billed plover Tawny owl
Ruddy-breasted crake Watercock
Common moorhen Common coot
Siberian crane Sarus crane
Common crane Black-necked crane
Hooded crane Grey plover

1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ashy_Drongo_0420_GarimaBhatia.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Garima Bhatia | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 4/22/18
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ashy_drongo_1.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Jameela P. | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 4/22/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/27588311346/ (cropped)
Image author: Koshy Koshy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/22/18
4.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/35068424065/ (cropped)
Image author: Koshy Koshy | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/22/18
Current topic in Birds of India: Ashy drongo - Dicrurus leucophaeus.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.

Saturday, April 21

Indian golden oriole photos

   ›      ›   Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo photos
Taxonomic classification   < >   Photos
The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) belongs to the family Oriolidae under the order Passeriformes.

Indian golden oriole taxonomy

The Oriolidae is the family of piopios, figbirds, pitohuis and the Old World orioles. The family Oriolidae was first introduced by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist and politician, in the year 1825.

The family Oriolidae comprises three extant genera, viz., genus Sphecotheres, genus Pitohui and genus Oriolus. The Oriolidae also contains two extinct genera, genus Turnagra and genus Longimornis.

The genus Oriolus was first described by Linnaeus in 1766 in the twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae, with Coracias oriolus as type species.

The genus Oriolus comprises twenty-nine species, including Oriolus kundoo. The species Oriolus kundoo was first described by Colonel William Henry Sykes, FRS (25 January 1790 – 16 June 1872), an English naturalist, politician, Indologist and ornithologist, in the year 1832.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Oriolus kundoo
Species:O. kundoo
Genus:Oriolus
Subfamily:-
Family:Oriolidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
1.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo 324
Photo by Nanda ramesh


Oriolus kundoo
2.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by Swardeepak

Oriolus kundoo
3.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by Swardeepak

Oriolus kundoo
4.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by J.M.Garg

juvenile - Oriolus kundoo
5.Indian golden oriole juvenile - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by Aadishbahulikar18

Oriolus kundoo
6.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by Jennystar1994

Oriolus kundoo
7.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by vijaykumar.bodakuntla

Oriolus kundoo
8.Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
Photo by Akshay Charegaonkar

Oriolus kundoo
9.Oriolus kundoo
Photo by J.M.Garg
Popular posts on Birds
Common redshank Black-naped tern
Jerdon's nightjar Silver-backed needletail
Brown-winged kingfisher Blue-cheeked bee-eater
Mountain scops-owl Long-tailed jaeger
Black-bellied sandgrouse Nilgiri wood pigeon
Yellow-legged green pigeon Brown hawk-owl
Sind woodpecker Long-tailed minivet
Brown-backed needletail Stork-billed kingfisher
Blue-tailed bee-eater Malabar pied hornbill
Himalayan swiftlet Ward's trogon
European roller Blyth's kingfisher
Little ringed plover Marsh sandpiper
Common tern Pin-tailed green pigeon
Pallid scops owl Sykes's nightjar
Edible-nest swiftlet Common barn-owl
Common kingfisher South polar skua
Pin-tailed sandgrouse Common wood pigeon
Hume's hawk-owl Himalayan woodpecker
Short-billed minivet Woodchat shrike
White-rumped spinetail Oriental dollarbird
Blue-eared kingfisher Blue-bearded bee-eater
Common hoopoe Chestnut-winged cuckoo
Pomarine jaeger Chestnut-bellied sandgrouse
Hodgson's frogmouth Black drongo
Long-billed plover Tawny owl
Jacobin cuckoo Eastern grass-owl
Andaman scops owl Sri Lanka frogmouth
Great eared nightjar Crested treeswift
Rock dove Rose-ringed parakeet
Ashy minivet Black-bellied plover

1.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_Golden_Oriole_(Oriolus_kundoo)_-_Male_Basavanagudi_Bangalore_India.jpg (cropped)
Author: Nanda ramesh | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
2.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_M.jpg (cropped)
Author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
3.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_F.jpg (cropped)
Author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
4.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
5.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beauty_Is_Rare.jpg (cropped)
Author: Aadishbahulikar18 | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 4/20/18
6.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Author: Jennystar1994 | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 4/20/18
7.Photo source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/109836656@N06/11435134216/ (cropped)
Author: vijaykumar.bodakuntla | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 4/20/18
8.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Akshay Charegaonkar | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
9.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
Current topic: Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo photos.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.

Friday, April 20

Indian golden oriole

   ›      ›   Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) belongs to the family of Old World orioles, the Oriolidae.

The Indian golden oriole species is distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent. These oriole species were earlier considered as subspecies of Oriolus oriolus. These orioles are monotypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Indian Golden Oriole Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) is a medium sized oriole, measuring 23 to 26 cm in length and weighing 60 to 100 grams. These birds are sexually dimorphic.

The male oriole has head, upperparts and underparts rich yellow. The wings are black with large yellow patches. The secondaries and tertiaries have yellow tips. The uppertail is black with yellow edge to the outer feathers.

The female has duller yellow plumage. The throat, breast and belly are whitish with yellow and black streaks. The juveniles have brownish wings and tail and the lores are pale.

The bill is pale pink. The irises are pale red. There is a pinkish gray eye-ring. The legs and feet are gray. The call of these oriole species is a fluty melodious "peelo..peelo" or "wee..wee..wee" sound.
Photo of Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
1.Photo of Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo by Swardeepak


Photo of golden oriole male - Oriolus kundoo
2.Photo of Indian golden oriole male - Oriolus kundoo by Nanda ramesh

Photo of golden oriole female - Oriolus kundoo
3.Photo of Indian golden oriole female - Oriolus kundoo by Swardeepak

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These golden oriole species are distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Indian subcontinent.

They are distributed in all the Indian states, except, Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Assam.

Ecosystem and habitat

These golden oriole species have high forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2400 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include rural gardens, plantations, orchards, agricultural lands and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these oriole species include tropical and subtropical montane forests, foothill forests, temperate forests, deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, thorny forests, mangroves, open country with scattered trees.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these golden oriole species consists mainly of fruits. Wild fruits, orchard fruits, berries of Lantana sp., plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds and mulberries are their primary food.

These oriole species are also known to feed on insects, small lizards, small mammals, eggs and hatchlings.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these Indian golden oriole species is from April to September in India. The laying season is during May and June in Nepal. The breeding season is during June in Afghanistan.

These Indian golden oriole species are monogamous and territorial. The nesting sites are located high in outer edge of well-foliaged tree canopy. The nest is suspended on a thin horizontal forked branch like a hammock. Both the parents take part in nest building.

The golden oriole nest is a open cup-like structure, woven with grass, twigs, sedges, cloth, reeds, strings, leaves, paper and plant fibers. It is lined with feathers, rootlets, straw, fur, wool, moss and lichens.

The clutch contains three to five white eggs with pink, brown and black speckles. The eggs are incubated by both the parents. The hatchlings are cared for by both the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

These golden oriole species are partially migratory birds. The migratory breeding populations are distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent.

These migratory golden oriole breeding populations move southwards from September onwards to Indian peninsula for wintering. There are resident breeding populations in the central parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Post breeding, the resident juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Indian golden oriole - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Oriolus kundoo
  • Species author: Sykes, 1832
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Oriolus Kundoo Sykes, 1832
  • Family: Oriolidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Indian golden oriole, Chinese: 印度金黄鹂, French: Loriot indien German: Indienpirol, Spanish: Oropéndola indian, Russian: Масковая иволга, Japanese: インドコウライウグイス
  • Other names: Golden oriole, Indian Golden Oriole, Indian Oriole
  • Distribution: Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent
  • Diet and feeding habits: fruits, berries, figs, nectar, insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is not known.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be fairly common to locally common (Walther and Jones, 2016). The generation length is 3.7 years. Its distribution size is about 4,650,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, agricultural expansion, climate change, being considered as pest by orchard farmers and sport hunting are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these species.

IUCN and CITES status

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the oriole species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Oriolus kundoo
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Oriolidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Oriolus
Species:O. kundoo
Binomial name:Oriolus kundoo
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) is closely related to Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus).
Popular posts on Birds
Common redshank Black-naped tern
Yellow-wattled lapwing Great snipe
Franklin's gull Barred cuckoo-dove
Yellow-footed green pigeon Brown hawk-owl
Sind woodpecker Long-tailed minivet
Tawny owl Great barbet
Yellow-rumped honeyguide Eurasian wryneck
Little ringed plover Marsh sandpiper
Common tern Pin-tailed green pigeon
Crab-plover Beach thick-knee
Ibisbill Black-winged stilt
Hume's hawk-owl Himalayan woodpecker
Short-billed minivet Woodchat shrike
Crested kingfisher Wreathed hornbill
Pheasant-tailed jacana Solitary snipe
Asian emerald cuckoo Black drongo
Long-billed plover Tawny owl
European bee-eater Oriental pied hornbill
White-eyed gull Caspian tern
Ashy minivet Grey plover

1.Indian golden oriole photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_M.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
2.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Photo author: Nanda ramesh | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
3.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_F.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
Current topic: Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.