Friday, April 20

Indian golden oriole

   ›      ›   Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) belongs to the family of Old World orioles, the Oriolidae.

The Indian golden oriole species is distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent. These oriole species were earlier considered as subspecies of Oriolus oriolus. These orioles are monotypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Indian Golden Oriole Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) is a medium sized oriole, measuring 23 to 26 cm in length and weighing 60 to 100 grams. These birds are sexually dimorphic.

The male oriole has head, upperparts and underparts rich yellow. The wings are black with large yellow patches. The secondaries and tertiaries have yellow tips. The uppertail is black with yellow edge to the outer feathers.

The female has duller yellow plumage. The throat, breast and belly are whitish with yellow and black streaks. The juveniles have brownish wings and tail and the lores are pale.

The bill is pale pink. The irises are pale red. There is a pinkish gray eye-ring. The legs and feet are gray. The call of these oriole species is a fluty melodious "peelo..peelo" or "wee..wee..wee" sound.
Photo of Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo
1.Photo of Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo by Swardeepak


Photo of golden oriole male - Oriolus kundoo
2.Photo of Indian golden oriole male - Oriolus kundoo by Nanda ramesh

Photo of golden oriole female - Oriolus kundoo
3.Photo of Indian golden oriole female - Oriolus kundoo by Swardeepak

Origin, geographical range and distribution

These golden oriole species are distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Indian subcontinent.

They are distributed in all the Indian states, except, Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Assam.

Ecosystem and habitat

These golden oriole species have high forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 2400 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include rural gardens, plantations, orchards, agricultural lands and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these oriole species include tropical and subtropical montane forests, foothill forests, temperate forests, deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, thorny forests, mangroves, open country with scattered trees.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these golden oriole species consists mainly of fruits. Wild fruits, orchard fruits, berries of Lantana sp., plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds and mulberries are their primary food.

These oriole species are also known to feed on insects, small lizards, small mammals, eggs and hatchlings.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these Indian golden oriole species is from April to September in India. The laying season is during May and June in Nepal. The breeding season is during June in Afghanistan.

These Indian golden oriole species are monogamous and territorial. The nesting sites are located high in outer edge of well-foliaged tree canopy. The nest is suspended on a thin horizontal forked branch like a hammock. Both the parents take part in nest building.

The golden oriole nest is a open cup-like structure, woven with grass, twigs, sedges, cloth, reeds, strings, leaves, paper and plant fibers. It is lined with feathers, rootlets, straw, fur, wool, moss and lichens.

The clutch contains three to five white eggs with pink, brown and black speckles. The eggs are incubated by both the parents. The hatchlings are cared for by both the parents.

Migration and movement patterns

These golden oriole species are partially migratory birds. The migratory breeding populations are distributed in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent.

These migratory golden oriole breeding populations move southwards from September onwards to Indian peninsula for wintering. There are resident breeding populations in the central parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Post breeding, the resident juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Indian golden oriole - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Oriolus kundoo
  • Species author: Sykes, 1832
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Oriolus Kundoo Sykes, 1832
  • Family: Oriolidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Indian golden oriole, Chinese: 印度金黄鹂, French: Loriot indien German: Indienpirol, Spanish: Oropéndola indian, Russian: Масковая иволга, Japanese: インドコウライウグイス
  • Other names: Golden oriole, Indian Golden Oriole, Indian Oriole
  • Distribution: Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent
  • Diet and feeding habits: fruits, berries, figs, nectar, insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is not known.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be fairly common to locally common (Walther and Jones, 2016). The generation length is 3.7 years. Its distribution size is about 4,650,000 sq.km.

Habitat alteration and destruction, agricultural expansion, climate change, being considered as pest by orchard farmers and sport hunting are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these species.

IUCN and CITES status

The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the oriole species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Oriolus kundoo
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Oriolidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Oriolus
Species:O. kundoo
Binomial name:Oriolus kundoo
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The Indian golden oriole (Oriolus kundoo) is closely related to Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus).
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1.Indian golden oriole photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_M.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
2.Photo source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Photo author: Nanda ramesh | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 4/20/18
3.Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IndianGoldenOriole_F.jpg (cropped)
Photo author: Swardeepak | License: CC BY 4.0 as on 4/20/18
Current topic: Indian golden oriole - Oriolus kundoo.
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