Yellow-footed (legged) green pigeon

   ›      ›   Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus

The yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus), also known as yellow legged green pigeon, belongs to the family Columbidae.

The green pigeon species is distributed in Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and China. This green pigeon is the state bird of Maharashtra (India). These pigeons are polytypic species.
Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus) is a medium-sized green pigeon, measuring 31 to 35 cm in length and weighing 200 to 250 grams.

These yellow-footed green pigeon species have bluish gray crown, nape and cheeks. The throat and the breast are pale yellowish orange. The underparts are paler. The neck is yellowish mustard. The upperparts are grayish green.

The bill is creamy white and the tip of the upper mandible is curved. The irises are reddish brown. The legs and feet are yellowish. The call of these green pigeon species is a mellow whistling "kwa.kow" sound.
Indian birds - Picture of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus
1.Birds of India - Image of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus by Davidvraju

Birds of India - Photo of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus
2.Indian birds - Picture of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus by Harvinder Chandigarh

Indian birds - Image of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus
3.Birds of India - Photo of Yellow-footed green pigeon - Treron phoenicopterus by Shantanu Kuveskar

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The yellow-footed green pigeons are distributed in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China.

In India, these yellow-footed green pigeon species are distributed in all the states, except for the Lakshadweep Islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The yellow-footed green pigeon nominate subspecies T. p. phoenicopterus is distributed in Himalayan foothills in India, Gangetic plain, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and northeast India. The subspecies T. p. phillipsi is distributed in Sri Lanka.

The yellow-footed green pigeon subspecies T. p. chlorigaster is distributed in eastern Pakistan, central India south of the Gangetic plains and southern India.

The green pigeon subspecies T. p. annamensis is distributed in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and eastern Thailand. The subspecies T. p. viridifrons is distributed in Myanmar, China (southern Yunnan) and northwest Thailand.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these yellow-footed green pigeons in Laos are Attapu Plain, Xe Kong Plains, Dong Khanthung and Dong Kalo. The IBA in Cambodia are Upper Srepok Catchment and Chhep.

The IBA of these yellow-footed green pigeons in Nepal are, Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Barandabhar forests, Bardia National Park, Chitwan National Park, Farmlands in Lumbini area, Dang Deukhuri foothill forests and west Rapti wetlands

Ecosystem and habitat

These yellow-footed green pigeon species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these species include heavily degraded forests, rural gardens and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, foothill forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, scrublands and dry shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of this yellow-footed green pigeon consists mainly of fruits. Wild fruits, orchard fruits, drupes, berries and figs are their primary food. These green pigeons forage on the branches of fruit trees.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these yellow-footed green pigeons is during March and April in India. The laying season is from March to June in Bangladesh. These species are monogamous and territorial.

The yellow-footed green pigeon nesting sites include shrubs and fork of the tree branches. The nest is a flimsy platform of sticks, twigs, grass and leaves. The typical clutch contains two white eggs.

The chicks of the yellow-footed green pigeon are altricial and require considerable parental care. Initially the chicks are fed by parents with crop milk, a regurgitated secretion from the lining of the crop.

Migration and movement patterns

These yellow-footed green pigeon species are non-migratory resident birds. They disperse locally after breeding. The populations in higher altitudes descend to the lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Yellow-footed green pigeon - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Treron phoenicopterus
  • Species author: (Latham, 1790)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Columba phænicoptera Latham, 1790
  • Family: Columbidae › Columbiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Yellow-footed green pigeon, Chinese: 黄脚绿鸠, French: Colombar commandeur, German: Rotschultertaube, Spanish: Vinago patigualdo, Russian: Желтоногий зелёный голубь, Japanese: キアシアオバト
  • Other names: yellow-legged green pigeon, Bengal Green-Pigeon
  • Distribution: Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, China
  • Diet and feeding habits: fruits
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be increasing.

In most of its range, this green pigeon species is reported to be common and widespread. The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 8,970,000

Breeding habitat alteration and destruction, hunting for food and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that are endangering the survival of these species.

IUCN and CITES status

The yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable, either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Treron phoenicopterus
Species:T. phoenicopterus
Binomial name:Treron phoenicopterus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The yellow-footed green pigeon (Treron phoenicopterus) is closely related to Bruce's green pigeon (Treron waalia).
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1.Image source: (cropped)
Image author: Davidvraju | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
2.Image source:,_Mohali,_Punjab,_India.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Harvinder Chandigarh | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
3.Image source: (cropped)
Image author: Shantanu Kuveskar | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
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