Para oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus)

   ›      ›   Para oropendola - Psarocolius bifasciatus

The Para oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus), also known as Olive oropendola, belongs to the family Icteridae.

The Para oropendola species is endemic to Brazil and is found in the Amazon forests. The oropendola is a non-migratory resident birds. This oropendola species is monotypic.

Key Facts Description
Pictures of Para Oropendola Distribution
Ecosystem & Habitat Conservation

Para oropendola - Description and identification

The Psarocolius bifasciatus species is a large oropendola measuring 45 to 55 cm in length and weighing 200 to 430 grams. The males are larger.

These species have chestnut colored back, wings, flanks and belly. The head and chest are dark. There are yellowish outer rectrices. The facial skin is pinkish.

The black bill is stout, long, pointed with orange tip. The legs and feet are grayish. The irises are brown. The eye ring is pale gray. The call is a gurgling "stek-ek-ek-ek" sound.
Image of Para oropendola - Psarocolius bifasciatus
1.Para oropendola - Psarocolius bifasciatus
Image by Francis de Laporte de Castelnau


Image of Para oropendola - Psarocolius bifasciatus
2.Para oropendola - Psarocolius bifasciatus
Image by Carol Foil

Para oropendola - Geographical range and distribution

This oropendola species is endemic to Brazil and is found in the southern Amazon forest and the Amazon delta in the state of Para.

Ecosystem and habitat

The Para oropendola species have high forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 100 meters.The artificial ecosystems and habitats include plantations near the forests.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, tall broadleaf forests and tropical and subtropical moist swamp and estuarine forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these species consists mainly of berries and fruits. Berries, fruits, insects and small vertebrates are their primary food.

They are particularly adapted for feeding on the forest canopy. They feed alone or in pairs. Sometimes, they feed in small groups.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these species is during the month of February. They breed in small colonies.

The nest is a long, hanging bag-like structure, built with plant fibers and vines. Not much is known about their reproductive and nesting habits.

Migration and movement patterns

The Para oropendola species are non-migratory, resident birds.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Para oropendola - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Psarocolius bifasciatus
  • Species author: (von Spix, 1824)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Cassicus bifasciatus Spix, 1824
  • Family: Icteridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Para oropendola, Chinese: 亚马孙拟掠鸟, French: Cassique du Para, German: Parástirnvogel, Spanish: Cacique de Pará, Russian: Амазонская оропендола, Japanese: チャバラオオツリスドリ
  • Other names: Amazonian Oropendola, Olive Oropendola
  • Distribution: endemic to Brazil
  • Diet and feeding habits: fruits, nectar, insects, small vertebrates
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Para oropendola - Conservation and survival

The global population size of the Para oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon to rare. The generation length is 4.6 years. Its distribution size is about 178,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and deforestation are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The Para oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the Para oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Psarocolius bifasciatus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Icteridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Psarocolius
Species:P. bifasciatus
Binomial name:Psarocolius bifasciatus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The Olive oropendola (Psarocolius bifasciatus) is closely related to the Amazonian Oropendola (Psarocolius yuracares).
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1.Para oropendola image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Psarocolius_(bifasciatus)_yurucares_-_Castelnau.jpg
Image author: Francis de Laporte de Castelnau | Public domain
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Image author: Carol Foil | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 1/18/19
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


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Plumbeous euphonia | American birds

   ›      ›   Plumbeous euphonia - Euphonia plumbea

The plumbeous euphonia (E. plumbea) belongs to the family of finch and euphonia, the Fringillidae.

The plumbeous euphonia species are distributed in Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. The euphonia is non-migratory resident species. This euphonia species is monotypic.

Key Facts Description
Pictures of Plumbeous Euphonia Distribution
Ecosystem & Habitat Conservation

Plumbeous euphonia - Description and identification

The Plumbeous euphonia is a small finch measuring 9 to 10 cm in length and weighing 8 to 10 grams.

The males of these species have bluish gray upperparts, head and breast. The underparts are yellow and the yellow flanks are streaked gray. The females are somewhat duller.

The bill is stout and steel gray. The legs and feet are grayish. The irises are dark. The eye ring is dark gray. The call is a whistling "dee.. dee.." or "weet" sound.
Plumbeous euphonia image
Plumbeous euphonia - Euphonia plumbea
Image by Hector Bottai


Plumbeous euphonia - Geographical range and distribution

This species is endemic to South America and is distributed in Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of the species in Brazil are, Tepuis do Amazonas, Parque Nacional do Jaú, Campinas e Várzeas do Rio Branco and Ecológico Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais e Entorno.

The IBA of this species in Venezuela are, Yavita-Pimichin, Reserva Forestal Sipapo, Parque Nacional Serranía La Neblina, Parque Nacional Canaima, Campamento Junglaven, Yapacana National Park and Reserva Forestal Imataca.

The IBA of plumbeous euphonia in Suriname are, Bakhuys mountains and Centraal Suriname Nature Reserve. The IBA in Colombia are, Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete and Riberas de la Cuenca Baja del Río Inírida.

Ecosystem and habitat

The plumbeous euphonia species has low forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems include heavily degraded forests.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical dry and moist shrublands, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, dry savanna, rocky areas and scattered trees in savanna.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the plumbeous euphonia species consists mainly of berries and fruits. Berries, small fruits and plant matter are their primary food. They are particularly adapted for feeding on mistletoe berries, which are poisonous.

Reproduction and breeding habits

They appear to build dome shaped plant fiber nests with side entrance. Not much is known about their breeding season and their reproductive and nesting habits.

Migration and movement patterns

The plumbeous euphonia species are non-migratory, resident birds. The populations in higher altitudes may descend to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Plumbeous euphonia - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Euphonia plumbea
  • Species author: Du Bus, 1855
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Euphonia plumbea du Bus de Gisignies, 1855
  • Family: Fringillidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Plumbeous euphonia, Chinese: 铅灰歌雀, French: Organiste plombé, German: Grauorganist, Spanish: Eufonia plúmbea, Russian: Свинцовая эуфония, Japanese: ハイイロスミレフウキンチョウ
  • Other names: Plumbeous euphonia
  • Distribution: Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana
  • Diet and feeding habits: small fruits, berries
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Plumbeous euphonia - Conservation and survival

The global population size of the plumbeous euphonia has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be uncommon (Stotz et al. 1996). The generation length is 3.5 years. Its distribution size is about 2,730,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The plumbeous euphonia (E. plumbea) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the plumbeous euphonia.
Taxonomy and scientific classification of E. plumbea
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Fringillidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Euphonia
Species:E. plumbea
Binomial name:E. plumbea
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
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Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/ (cropped)
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Lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria)

   ›      ›   Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria

The lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) belongs to the family of goldfinch and siskin, the Fringillidae.

The lesser goldfinch species are distributed in Southwestern North America, Central America and Northwestern South America. The goldfinch species is partially migratory. This goldfinch species is polytypic.

Key Facts Description
Pictures of Lesser Goldfinch Distribution
Ecosystem & Habitat Conservation

Lesser goldfinch - Description and identification

The lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) is a small finch, measuring 9 to 12 cm in length and weighing 8 to 12 grams.

The males of lesser goldfinch have bright yellow underparts and some white patches on the wings. The upperparts are bluish black. The throat and the sides of the neck are bright yellow. There is variation in coloration in the subspecies.

The bill is stout and grayish yellow. The legs and feet are grayish. The irises are dark. The eye ring is gray. The call is a harsh loud "chig.. chig.. chig" sound or a very high-pitched, drawn-out whistling sound.
Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria pictures
1.Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo


Lesser goldfinch images
2.Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Spinus psaltria photos
3.Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria images
4.Lesser goldfinch - Spinus psaltria
Image by Alejandro Bayer Tamayo

Lesser goldfinch - Geographical range and distribution

These species are distributed in southwest North America, Central America and northwest South America.

In North America, the lesser goldfinch species are distributed in southwest Canada, western and southern USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

In northwestern South America, these species are distributed in Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.

The lesser goldfinch nominate subspecies S. p. psaltria is distributed in west central USA to southern Mexico. The subspecies S. p. jouyi is distributed in southeast Mexico and north Belize. The subspecies S. p. witti occurs in Mary Islands (Mexico).

The subspecies S. p. hesperophilus is distributed in western coastal USA and western Mexico. The subspecies S. p. colombianus is distributed in south Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru.

Ecosystem and habitat

These goldfinch species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 3100 meters. The artificial ecosystems include plantations, rural gardens and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the goldfinch species include tropical and subtropical dry shrublands, high altitude shrublands and montane subtropical and temperate woodlands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the lesser goldfinch species consists mainly of seeds and fruits. Small larval and adult insects, small beetles and plant matter are their primary food. They are usually seen in flocks, feeding on the ground.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these goldfinch species is during summer in the temperate parts of their breeding range. In tropical regions, there is year round breeding.

The breeding ecosystem includes trees, bushes and shrubs. The nest is a cup made with grasses, rootlets, lichens and plant fibers. The clutch comprises three or four bluish white eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

The lesser goldfinch species are partially migratory as well as resident birds.

The populations in higher altitudes may descend to lower levels during winter. Breeding populations in central North America may move towards coastal regions during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Lesser goldfinch - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Spinus psaltria
  • Species author: (Say, 1822)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Fringilla psaltria Say, 1822
  • Family: Fringillidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Lesser goldfinch, Chinese: 暗背金翅雀, French: Chardonneret mineur, German: Mexikozeisig, Spanish: Jilguero menor, Russian: Малый чиж, Japanese: ヒメキンヒワ
  • Other names: Lesser Goldfinch, Arkansas Goldfinch, Dark-backed Goldfinch
  • Distribution: Southwest North America, Central America, Northwest South America
  • Diet and feeding habits: seeds, fruits, insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Lesser goldfinch - Conservation and survival

The global population size of the lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be declining.

In most of its range, this goldfinch species is reported to be common to uncommon. The generation length is 4.5 years. Its distribution size is about 13,700,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Spinus psaltria
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Fringillidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Spinus
Species:S. psaltria
Binomial name:Spinus psaltria
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The five recognized subspecies of the lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) are:
Spinus psaltria psaltria (Say, 1822),
Spinus psaltria colombianus (Lafresnaye, 1843),
Spinus psaltria jouyi (Ridgway, 1898),
Spinus psaltria witti P. R. Grant, 1964 and
Spinus psaltria hesperophilus (Oberholser, 1903).
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/45130118224/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/16/19
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/45130117824/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/16/19
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/45130118214/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/16/19
4.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alejobayer/30915615607/ (cropped)
Image author: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/16/19
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Black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus)

   ›      ›   Black-chinned siskin - Spinus barbatus

The black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus) belongs to the family of finches and siskins, the Fringillidae.

The black-chinned siskin species are distributed in Argentina, Chile and Falkland Islands in South America. The siskin species is widespread and common. This siskin species is monotypic.

Key Facts Description
Pictures of Black-chinned Siskin Distribution
Ecosystem & Habitat Conservation

Black-chinned siskin - Description and identification

The black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus) is a small finch, measuring 10 to 15 cm in length and weighing 10 to 20 grams.

These siskin species have greenish-yellow plumage. The males have a raised dark crown and dark central, upper throat. The upperparts have blackish streaks. The underparts are greenish-yellow. The females are duller and lack the dark crown.

The bill is small and grayish. The legs and feet are grayish. The irises are dark. The call is a song given from a prominent perch.
Black-chinned siskin - Spinus barbatus
1.Black-chinned siskin - Spinus barbatus
Image by Juan Tassara


Spinus barbatus image
2.Black-chinned siskin - Spinus barbatus
Image by Dick Culbert

Spinus barbatus image
3.Black-chinned siskin - Spinus barbatus
Image by Valentina Requesens

Black-chinned siskin - Geographical range and distribution

These species are distributed in southern Argentina, central and southern Chile and Falkland Islands in South America.

Ecosystem and habitat

The black-chinned siskin species have low forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 1500 meters. The artificial ecosystems include heavily degraded forests, gardens and urban areas.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the species include temperate forests, shrublands and grasslands, foothill forests, montane forests and grasslands, coniferous forests, broad-leaf forests and open lowlands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these species consists mainly of seeds. Small larval and adult insects, small beetles and plant matter are their primary food. They are usually seen in flocks, feeding on the ground.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these siskin species is from July to February in most of their breeding range. They may raise up to three broods.

The breeding ecosystem includes trees and shrubs in temperate regions. The nest is a cup made with grasses, rootlets, plant fibers and animal hair.

Migration and movement patterns

The black-chinned siskin species are non-migratory resident birds. The populations in higher altitudes may descend to lower levels during winter.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding.

Black-chinned siskin - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Spinus barbatus
  • Species author: (Molina, 1782)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Fringilla barbata Molina, 1782
  • Family: Fringillidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Black-chinned siskin, Chinese: 黑颏金翅雀, French: Tarin à menton noir, German: Bartzeisig, Spanish: Jilguero golinegro, Russian: Бородатый чиж, Japanese: ヤッコヒワ
  • Other names: Black-chinned Siskin
  • Distribution: Argentina, Chile, Falkland Islands
  • Diet and feeding habits: seeds, insects, larval insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Black-chinned siskin - Conservation and survival

The global population size of the black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.

In most of its range, this siskin species is reported to be common (Stotz et al. 1996). The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 2,620,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the siskin species.

IUCN and CITES status

The black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Spinus barbatus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Fringillidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Spinus
Species:S. barbatus
Binomial name:Spinus barbatus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barbatamportada.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Juan Tassara | Licence: Public domain as on 1/15/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black-chinned_Siskin_Spinus_barbatus,_central_Chile.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Dick Culbert | Licence: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/15/19
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Image author: Valentina Requesens | Licence: CC BY 2.0 1/15/19
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Little stint (Calidris minuta)

   ›      ›   Little stint - Calidris minuta

The little stint (Calidris minuta) belongs to the family of sandpipers, snipes and stints, the Scolopacidae.

The little stint is distributed in Africa, Europe, Asia and Indian subcontinent. The stint species is fully migratory. This stint species is monotypic.

Key Facts Description
Pictures of Little Stint Distribution
Ecosystem & Habitat Conservation

Little stint - Description and identification

The little stint (Calidris minuta) is a small stint, measuring 10 to 15 cm in length and weighing 20 to 45 grams. The wingspan is 25 to 30 cm.

These stint species have brown upperparts with black, dark brown and white mottling. The head, neck and upper breast have brown striations. There is a brown lore. The underparts are white. The non-breeding birds are paler.

The bill is long, dark and black. The legs and feet are long and blackish. The irises are dark. There is a whitish eye-ring. The call is a loud high-pitched trilling sound.
Image of Little stint - Calidris minuta
1.Little stint - Calidris minuta
Image by Ken Billington


Image of Calidris minuta by Zeynel Cebeci
2.Little stint - Calidris minuta
Image by Zeynel Cebeci

Image of Calidris minuta
3.Little stint - Calidris minuta
Image by Davidvraju

Little stint - Geographical range and distribution

The breeding populations of the little stint species are distributed in Arctic Europe and Arctic Asia.

The wintering populations are distributed in southern Europe, Mediterranean region, Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Indian subcontinent and coastal Myanmar.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of the little stint in Russia are, Torna-Shoina watershed, Dvuob'ye, Lapland Biosphere Reserve, Lower Ob', Upper and Middle Yuribey, Lower Yuribey and Bolshaya Rogovaya river.

The IBA of these stint species in Norway are, Varanger Peninsula, Slettnes and Røst. The IBA in India are, Krishnarajasagar Reservoir, Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary.

The IBA of these species in Kazakhstan are, Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve, Kushmurun Lake and Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System. The IBA in Pakistan are, Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary and Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands.

Ecosystem and habitat

The little stint species do not occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems include freshwater ponds, wastewater treatment ponds and irrigated agricultural fields.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the stint species include Arctic tundra, Arctic coastlines, tundra wetlands, tundra grasslands, estuaries, mudflats, salt-marshes, freshwater lakes, rivers and streams.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the little stint species consists mainly of invertebrates. Larval and adult flies, small beetles, larvae of mosquitoes, craneflies, annelids, ants, crustaceans, molluscs and plant matter are their primary food.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these little stint species is during June and July in most of their breeding range. Monogamous, polygynous and polyandrous behavior had been observed. Males and females may incubate separate clutches.

The breeding ecosystem includes low altitude Arctic tundra, Arctic grassy islands and icy tundra. The nest is a cup-like shallow depression on open elevated ground, which may be covered by vegetation.

The clutch may contain three to five off-white colored oval eggs with dark patches. The chicks hatch out after 20 to 25 days of incubation. The hatchlings are precocial, able to feed themselves almost immediately.

Migration and movement patterns

The little stint species are fully migratory birds. They breed in Arctic Europe and Arctic Asia. They migrate southwards during July to September and arrive at the wintering grounds in late September and October.

These stint species winter in Africa, west coast of Europe, Indian subcontinent, Arabian peninsula, Mediterranean region and coastal Myanmar.

The return migration to the Arctic breeding grounds occurs in early summer, from mid-May to early-June (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The immature birds stay back and spend the summer in the wintering grounds.

Little stint - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Calidris minuta
  • Species author: (Leisler, 1812)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Tringa minuta Leisler, 1812
  • Family: Scolopacidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Little stint, Chinese: 小滨鹬, French: Bécasseau minute, German: Zwergstrandläufer, Spanish: Correlimos menudo, Russian: Кулик-воробей, Japanese: ヨーロッパトウネン
  • Other names: Little Stint
  • Distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe
  • Diet and feeding habits: invertebrates, insects, larval insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Little stint - Conservation and survival

The global population size of the little stint (Calidris minuta) is estimated to number about 1,500,000 to 1,600,000 individual birds (Wetlands International 2015). The overall population trend of the species is considered to be increasing.

In most of its range, this stint species is reported to be common to fairly common. The generation length is 6.8 years. Its distribution size is about 4,750,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, adverse weather, climate change, hunting for food and sport hunting are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the stint species.

IUCN and CITES status

The little stint (Calidris minuta) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the little stint (Calidris minuta).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Calidris minuta
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Calidris
Species:C. minuta
Binomial name:Calidris minuta
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The little stint (Calidris minuta) was earlier included in the genus Erolia.
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1.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Little_Stint_(Calidris_minuta)_(1).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Ken Billington | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/14/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Image author: Zeynel | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/14/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org (cropped)
Image author: | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/14/19
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Brent goose distribution

   ›      ›   distribution

The Brent goose (Branta bernicla), also known as Brant goose, has holarctic distribution.

These goose species are long-distance migratory birds, having circumpolar breeding distribution and coastal temperate wintering distribution. They are distributed in North America, Europe and Asia.

Brent goose distribution

These goose species have circumpolar breeding distribution. The breeding birds are distributed in northwest USA (north, west and southern parts of Alaska and north-west British Columbia), north and northeast Canada, Denmark (north Greenland), Norway (Svalbard) and northern Russia (Franz Josef Land, Arctic Siberia and Taymyr Peninsula).

The brent goose species have coastal temperate wintering distribution. In the coastal North Atlantic Ocean, wintering goose species, are distributed in Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, France, northwest Spain and northeast USA.

In the coastal North Pacific Ocean, wintering birds are distributed in southern peninsular Alaska, west coast of USA and west coast of Mexico, Japan, yellow sea region of China and South Korea.
brent goose image
1.Brent goose image
by Peter Massas


Branta bernicla
2.Brent goose image
by Arpingstone

Distribution of brent goose subspecies

There are four recognized subspecies, viz., Branta bernicla bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758), Branta bernicla hrota (O. F. Müller, 1776), Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) and Branta bernicla orientalis Tugarinov, 1941.

The nominate subspecies Branta bernicla bernicla (dark-bellied brant) breeds in the Arctic coasts of western and central Siberia.

In winter, its distribution is along the western European coast, spread mostly over southern United Kingdom. The wintering brent goose subspecies B. b. bernicla also occurs in Germany and France.

The distribution of the subspecies Branta bernicla hrota (pale-bellied brant goose) in the breeding season is in northeastern Canada, Greenland, Svalbard (Norway) and Franz Josef Land.

The subspecies B. b. hrota winters in North Atlantic coast of USA (North Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York,Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts), Denmark and Ireland.

The breeding seasonal distribution of the subspecies Branta bernicla nigricans (black-bellied brent goose) is in extreme northeast Siberia, Alaska and north-central Canada.

The wintering subspecies B. b. nigricans is distributed in coastal regions of North Pacific Ocean in western USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea and eastern China.

The breeding population of the subspecies Branta bernicla orientalis is distributed in northeast Siberia (Russia). The wintering birds are presumed to occur along North Pacific Ocean coast.
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1.Brent goose image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black.brant.slimbridge.march2007.arp.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arpingstone | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
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Brent goose images

   ›      ›   Brent goose (Branta bernicla) images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The belongs to the family Anatidae under the order Anseriformes. The brent goose species are fully migratory birds.

Brent goose taxonomy

The family Anatidae represents the waterfowls belonging to the duck, goose and swan group. The family Anatidae was first introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in the year 1820.

The type species of this family is 'Anas platyrhynchos', introduced by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1758.

The family Anatidae comprises seven subfamilies, including Anserinae. The subfamily Anserinae was first introduced by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist, in the year 1825.

The subfamily Anserinae comprises three genera, viz., Cygnus, Anser and Branta. The genus Branta was first described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (3 June 1723 – 8 May 1788), an Italian physician and naturalist, in the year 1769.

The goose genus Branta comprises six species, including Brent goose (Branta bernicla). The species Branta bernicla was first described by Carl Linnaeus in the year 1758.

The species Branta bernicla comprises four subspecies, viz., Branta bernicla bernicla, Branta bernicla nigricans, Branta bernicla orientalis and Branta bernicla hrota.

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Branta bernicla
Species:B. bernicla
Genus:Branta
Subfamily:-
Family:Anatidae
Order:Anseriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Brent goose - Branta bernicla
1.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Peter Massas


Branta bernicla
2.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Tim Bowman, USFWS

Branta bernicla
3.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Arpingstone

Branta bernicla
4.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Arnstein Rønning

Branta bernicla
5.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by DickDaniels

Branta bernicla
6.Branta bernicla
Image by USFWS - Pacific Region

Branta bernicla
7.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by USFWS - Pacific Region

Branta bernicla
8.Branta bernicla
Image by MPF

Branta bernicla
9.Branta bernicla
Image by Ian Kirk
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1.Brent goose image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Tim Bowman, USFWS | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black.brant.slimbridge.march2007.arp.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arpingstone | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Lvk.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/10/19
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brant_(Branta_bernicla)_RWD4.jpg (cropped)
Author: DickDaniels | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/10/19
6.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Puget_Sound_0.jpg (cropped)
Author: USFWS - Pacific Region | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
7.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Puget_Sound_1.jpg (cropped)
Author: USFWS - Pacific Region | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
8.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_hrota_Tynemouth_Northumberland_3.jpg (cropped)
Author: MPF | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/10/19
9.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Ian Kirk | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
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