Brent goose distribution

   ›      ›   distribution

The Brent goose (Branta bernicla), also known as Brant goose, has holarctic distribution.

These goose species are long-distance migratory birds, having circumpolar breeding distribution and coastal temperate wintering distribution. They are distributed in North America, Europe and Asia.

Brent goose distribution

These goose species have circumpolar breeding distribution. The breeding birds are distributed in northwest USA (north, west and southern parts of Alaska and north-west British Columbia), north and northeast Canada, Denmark (north Greenland), Norway (Svalbard) and northern Russia (Franz Josef Land, Arctic Siberia and Taymyr Peninsula).

The brent goose species have coastal temperate wintering distribution. In the coastal North Atlantic Ocean, wintering goose species, are distributed in Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, France, northwest Spain and northeast USA.

In the coastal North Pacific Ocean, wintering birds are distributed in southern peninsular Alaska, west coast of USA and west coast of Mexico, Japan, yellow sea region of China and South Korea.
brent goose image
1.Brent goose image
by Peter Massas


Branta bernicla
2.Brent goose image
by Arpingstone

Distribution of brent goose subspecies

There are four recognized subspecies, viz., Branta bernicla bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758), Branta bernicla hrota (O. F. Müller, 1776), Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) and Branta bernicla orientalis Tugarinov, 1941.

The nominate subspecies Branta bernicla bernicla (dark-bellied brant) breeds in the Arctic coasts of western and central Siberia.

In winter, its distribution is along the western European coast, spread mostly over southern United Kingdom. The wintering brent goose subspecies B. b. bernicla also occurs in Germany and France.

The distribution of the subspecies Branta bernicla hrota (pale-bellied brant goose) in the breeding season is in northeastern Canada, Greenland, Svalbard (Norway) and Franz Josef Land.

The subspecies B. b. hrota winters in North Atlantic coast of USA (North Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York,Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts), Denmark and Ireland.

The breeding seasonal distribution of the subspecies Branta bernicla nigricans (black-bellied brent goose) is in extreme northeast Siberia, Alaska and north-central Canada.

The wintering subspecies B. b. nigricans is distributed in coastal regions of North Pacific Ocean in western USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea and eastern China.

The breeding population of the subspecies Branta bernicla orientalis is distributed in northeast Siberia (Russia). The wintering birds are presumed to occur along North Pacific Ocean coast.
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1.Brent goose image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black.brant.slimbridge.march2007.arp.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arpingstone | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Brent goose (Branta bernicla) distribution.

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Brent goose images

   ›      ›   Brent goose (Branta bernicla) images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The belongs to the family Anatidae under the order Anseriformes. The brent goose species are fully migratory birds.

Brent goose taxonomy

The family Anatidae represents the waterfowls belonging to the duck, goose and swan group. The family Anatidae was first introduced by William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836), an English zoologist and marine biologist, in the year 1820.

The type species of this family is 'Anas platyrhynchos', introduced by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1758.

The family Anatidae comprises seven subfamilies, including Anserinae. The subfamily Anserinae was first introduced by Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840), an Irish zoologist, in the year 1825.

The subfamily Anserinae comprises three genera, viz., Cygnus, Anser and Branta. The genus Branta was first described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (3 June 1723 – 8 May 1788), an Italian physician and naturalist, in the year 1769.

The goose genus Branta comprises six species, including Brent goose (Branta bernicla). The species Branta bernicla was first described by Carl Linnaeus in the year 1758.

The species Branta bernicla comprises four subspecies, viz., Branta bernicla bernicla, Branta bernicla nigricans, Branta bernicla orientalis and Branta bernicla hrota.

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Branta bernicla
Species:B. bernicla
Genus:Branta
Subfamily:-
Family:Anatidae
Order:Anseriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Brent goose - Branta bernicla
1.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Peter Massas


Branta bernicla
2.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Tim Bowman, USFWS

Branta bernicla
3.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Arpingstone

Branta bernicla
4.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Arnstein Rønning

Branta bernicla
5.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by DickDaniels

Branta bernicla
6.Branta bernicla
Image by USFWS - Pacific Region

Branta bernicla
7.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by USFWS - Pacific Region

Branta bernicla
8.Branta bernicla
Image by MPF

Branta bernicla
9.Branta bernicla
Image by Ian Kirk
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1.Brent goose image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Tim Bowman, USFWS | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black.brant.slimbridge.march2007.arp.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arpingstone | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Lvk.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/10/19
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brant_(Branta_bernicla)_RWD4.jpg (cropped)
Author: DickDaniels | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/10/19
6.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Puget_Sound_0.jpg (cropped)
Author: USFWS - Pacific Region | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
7.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Puget_Sound_1.jpg (cropped)
Author: USFWS - Pacific Region | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
8.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_hrota_Tynemouth_Northumberland_3.jpg (cropped)
Author: MPF | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/10/19
9.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Ian Kirk | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/10/19
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Brent goose (Branta bernicla) images.

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Brent goose facts

   ›      ›   Brent goose facts

The brent goose belongs to the family Anatidae under the order Anseriformes. It is also known as brant goose.

This goose species breeds in Arctic region. The goose species is a long distance migrant and winters in southern coastal areas.

Brent goose - key facts

  • Common English name: Brent goose
  • Other names: Brant, Brant Goose
  • Scientific name: Branta bernicla
  • Family: Anatidae (ducks, swans and geese)
  • Description: Small (slightly larger than mallard), dark upperparts, varying underpart plumage
  • Measurements: Length 55-65 cm; weight 850-1800 gm; wingspan 110–125 cm
  • Distribution: North America, Asia, Europe
  • Habitat: Arctic tundra, ice tundra, grass tundra, coastal ecosystem
  • Diet and feeding habits: marine algae, grass, moss, lichen

  • IUCN: Least Concern (LC)
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1758)


Vernacular names of Brent goose

  • Chinese: 黑雁
  • French: Bernache cravant
  • German: Ringelgans
  • Japanese: コクガン
  • Spanish: Barnacla carinegra
  • Russian: Чёрная казарка

Taxonomic facts of Branta bernicla

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Anseriformes
Family:Anatidae
Genus:Branta
Species:B. bernicla
Subspecies:4 subspecies
Binomial name:Branta bernicla
Synonyms/Protonym:Anas Bernicla Linnaeus, 1758

Subspecies of Branta bernicla

  • Branta bernicla bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Branta bernicla hrota (O. F. Müller, 1776)
  • Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)
  • Branta bernicla orientalis Tugarinov, 1941
brent goose - pale-bellied
1.Brent goose (pale-bellied)
Image by Peter Massas


Branta bernicla (pale-bellied)
2.Brent goose (pale-bellied)
Image by Arnstein Rønning
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_Lvk.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arnstein Rønning | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/10/19
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Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Brent goose (Branta bernicla) facts.

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Brent goose (Branta bernicla)

   ›      ›   Brent goose - Branta bernicla

The brent goose (Branta bernicla) aka brant belongs to the family of duck, swan and goose, the Anatidae.

The brent goose is distributed in North America, Europe and Asia. The brant species is fully migratory. This goose species is polytypic, comprising four recognized subspecies.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Brent Goose Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Description and identification of Brent goose

The brent goose (Branta bernicla) is a small goose, measuring 55 to 65 cm in length and weighing 850 to 1800 grams. The males are slightly larger.

These goose species have black, gray, grayish brown and white plumage. There is variations in plumage color among the races. The head, neck, back and tail are black or blackish brown.

There are black forms and dark-bellied and pale-bellied forms. There are ring-like white patches on the neck. The undertail is white.

The bill is duck-like and black. The legs and feet are blackish gray. The irises are dark. There is a dark eye-ring. The call is a loud "quank" or "quak" sound.
Brent goose - Branta bernicla
1.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Tim Bowman, USFWS


Branta bernicla
2.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Peter Massas

Branta bernicla
3.Brent goose - Branta bernicla
Image by Arpingstone

Geographical range and distribution of Brent goose

The breeding populations of the brent goose species are distributed in Arctic North America, Arctic European islands and Arctic Asia.

The wintering populations are distributed in west and east coast of North America, west coast of Europe, eastern coast of China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan.

Several Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of these brent goose species have been notified in several countries, viz., Canada, USA, Mexico, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Russia and Japan.

Ecosystem and habitat

The brent goose species do not occur in forests. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 100 meters. The artificial ecosystems include pasturelands and coastal agricultural fields.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the goose species include Arctic tundra, Arctic coastlines, tundra grasslands, estuaries, mudflats, saltmarshes, shallow seas with emergent seaweeds and eel-grass.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the brent goose species consists mainly of plant matter. Seaweeds, macroalgae, eelgrass, sea lettuce, arrow-grass, terrestrial grasses, mosses, lichens and cereal crops are their primary food.

These goose species are also known to feed on insects and aquatic invertebrates like, snails, amphipods, fish-eggs and marine worms.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these brent goose species is during June in most of their breeding range. They are monogamous and breed as single pairs or in small, loose colonies. They synchronize egg-laying period.

The breeding ecosystem includes coastal Arctic tundra, Arctic grassy islands and icy tundra. The nest is a bowl-like shallow depression on elevated ground, often lined with grass and down feathers.

The clutch may contain three to five off-white colored oval eggs. The female incubates the eggs. The male remains close and guards the nest. The chicks hatch out after 24 to 26 days of incubation. The hatchlings are precocial, able to feed themselves almost immediately. The young birds fledge after six weeks.

Migration and movement patterns

The brent goose species are fully migratory birds. They breed in Arctic North America and Arctic Asia. They migrate southwards during September and arrive at the wintering grounds in late September and October.

These goose species winter in west and east coast of North America, west coast of Europe and the eastern coast of China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan. The return migration to the Arctic breeding grounds occurs in early summer, from mid-March to mid-April (Madge and Burn 1988).

Brent goose - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Branta bernicla
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Anas Bernicla Linnaeus, 1758
  • Family: Anatidae › Anseriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Brent goose, Chinese: 黑雁, French: Bernache cravant, German: Ringelgans, Spanish: Barnacla carinegra, Russian: Чёрная казарка, Japanese: コクガン
  • Other names: Brent Goose, Brant, Brant Goose
  • Distribution: North America, Asia, Europe
  • Diet and feeding habits: plant matter, grass, moss, lichen
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Brent goose conservation and survival

The global population size of the brent goose (Branta bernicla) is estimated to number about 560,000 to 650,000 individual birds (Wetlands International 2015). The overall population trend of the species is unknown.

In most of its range, this goose species is reported to be uncommon to fairly common. The generation length is 10.9 years. Its distribution size is about 22,100,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, adverse weather, climate change, hunting for food, sport hunting and capture of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The brent goose (Branta bernicla) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the brent goose (Branta bernicla).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Branta bernicla
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Anseriformes
Family:Anatidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Branta
Species:B. bernicla
Binomial name:Branta bernicla
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The brent goose (Branta bernicla) is known to hybridize with red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis).
The recognized four subspecies of the brent goose (Branta bernicla) are:
B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758),
B. b. hrota (O. F. Müller, 1776),
B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) and
B. b. orientalis Tugarinov, 1941.
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1.Brent goose image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: Tim Bowman, USFWS | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_bernicla_-Keyport,_New_Jersey,_USA-8.jpg (cropped)
Author: Peter Massas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/10/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black.brant.slimbridge.march2007.arp.jpg (cropped)
Author: Arpingstone | License: Public domain as on 1/10/19
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


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Black-and-white warbler images

   ›      ›   Black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) belongs to the family Parulidae under the order Passeriformes.

Black-and-white warbler taxonomy

The Parulidae is the family of New World warblers.

The family Parulidae was first introduced by Frank Alexander Wetmore (June 18, 1886 – December 7, 1978), an American ornithologist and avian paleontologist, and his team in the year 1947.

The warbler family Parulidae comprises seventeen genera, including Mniotilta. The genus Mniotilta is monotypic and comprises one species, Mniotilta varia.

The genus Mniotilta was first described by Louis Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748 – August 24, 1830), a French ornithologist, in the year 1816.

The species Mniotilta varia was first described (as Motacilla varia) by Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, in the year 1766.

The species Mniotilta varia is monotypic; it is however known to hybridize with cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), the Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca) and the black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens).

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Mniotilta varia
Species:M. varia
Genus:Mniotilta
Subfamily:-
Family:Parulidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
1.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Image by William H. Majoros


Mniotilta varia
2.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Picture by Wolfgang Wander

Mniotilta varia
3.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Photos by William H. Majoros

Mniotilta varia
4.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Image by William H. Majoros

Mniotilta varia
5.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Image by William H. Majoros

Mniotilta varia
6.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Image by William H. Majoros

Mniotilta varia
7.Mniotilta varia
Image by TonyCastro

Mniotilta varia
8.Mniotilta varia
Image by Mike & Chris

Mniotilta varia
9.Mniotilta varia
Image by Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren
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1.Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black-and-white-warbler-1.jpg (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
2.Source: http://www.pbase.com/wwcsig/image/50151128 (cropped)
Author: Wolfgang Wander | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 and GFDL 1.2 as on 1/9/19
3.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:8G7D2762.jpg (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
4.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:8G7D3001Z.jpg (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
5.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
6.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
7.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: TonyCastro | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 1/9/19
8.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mniotilta_varia_3.jpg (cropped)
Author: Mike & Chris | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 1/9/19
9.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildreturn/32838593514/ (cropped)
Author: Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 1/9/19
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Black-and-white warbler | American birds

   ›      ›   Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia

The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) belongs to the family of New World warblers, the Parulidae.

The black-and-white warbler is distributed in North America, South America and the Caribbean Islands. These warbler species are fully migratory birds. These warblers are monotypic.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Black-and-white Warbler Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) is a stocky, relatively short-tailed New World warbler, measuring 10 to 13 cm in length and weighing 9 to 15 grams.

These black-and-white warbler species have black and white striped plumage. The crown is dark with a central white streak. There is a bold white supercilium and a black lore extending beyond the eye.

The upperparts and the flanks are boldly striped black and white. The underparts have milder striping. The vent and undertail regions have dark bars. The females and juveniles have duller streaking.

The bill is long, pointed and grayish. The legs and feet are blackish gray. The irises are dark. There is a whitish eye-ring. The warbler call is a loud "chee.. chee.. chee.. chee" sound.
Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
1.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Picture by Wolfgang Wander


Mniotilta varia
2.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Photo by William H. Majoros

Mniotilta varia
3.Black-and-white warbler - Mniotilta varia
Image by William H. Majoros

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The breeding populations of the black-and-white warbler species are distributed in southern, southwest and southeast Canada and central and eastern USA.

The wintering warbler populations occur in southern USA (Florida, southern Texas), central and southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and the Caribbean Islands.

Vagrant warblers occur in Faroe Islands (Denmark), Ireland and United Kingdom. Passage birds are found in central and south-central USA, southeast USA (Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina) and north Mexico.

Ecosystem and habitat

The black-and-white warbler species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 1000 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the warbler species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, boreal forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests, deciduous forests and dry shrublands.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the black-and-white warbler species consists mainly of insects. Caterpillars, insects, moths, butterflies, beetles, ants, spiders, fruits and berries are their primary food.

These species are mostly arboreal. Foraging on tree trunks and inner branches, they glean insects from the foliage. During breeding and migration, larval insects and caterpillars are the preferred diet.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these black-and-white warbler species is from April to June in most of their breeding range. They are monogamous solitary breeders. They males are highly territorial and perform display flights.

The breeding ecosystem includes boreal forests and montane forests. They mostly nest on the ground, among the roots of trees and in crevices on tree stumps.

The female black-and-white warbler constructs the cup-shaped nest with grass, leaves and rootlets. The nest is lined with fine grass, feathers, moss and rootlets. The female incubates the eggs.

The clutch may contain four to five eggs. The male may feed the female during incubation. The chicks hatch out after 10 days and the parents take care of the hatchlings. The young birds fledge after 10 days.

Migration and movement patterns

The black-and-white warbler species are fully migratory birds. They breed in southern, southwest and southeast Canada and central and eastern USA. They migrate southwards for wintering during July and August.

These warblers winter in southern regions of North America, Northern parts of South America and the Caribbean Islands. The return migration to the breeding grounds occurs in early summer.

Black-and-white warbler - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Mniotilta varia
  • Species author: (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Motacilla varia Linnaeus, 1766
  • Family: Parulidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Black-and-white warbler, Chinese: 黑白森莺, French: Paruline noir et blanc, German: Kletterwaldsänger, Spanish: Reinita trepadora, Russian: Чёрно-белая древесница, Japanese: シロクロアメリカムシクイ
  • Other names: Black-and-white Warbler
  • Distribution:North America, South America, Caribbean Islands
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, fruits, berries
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is reported to be declining.

In most of its range, this warbler species is reported to be uncommon to common. The generation length is 4.6 years. Its distribution size is about 11,500,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, deforestation, adverse weather and climate change are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the warbler species.

IUCN and CITES status

The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Mniotilta varia
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Parulidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Mniotilta
Species:M. varia
Binomial name:Mniotilta varia
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) is known to hybridize with cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), the Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca) and the black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens).
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1.Image source: http://www.pbase.com/wwcsig/image/50151128 (cropped)
Author: Wolfgang Wander | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 and GFDL 1.2 as on 1/9/19
2.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black-and-white-warbler-1.jpg (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:8G7D2762.jpg (cropped)
Author: William H. Majoros | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 1/9/19
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


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Ecuadorian cacique | American birds

   ›      ›   Ecuadorian cacique - Cacicus sclateri

The Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri) belongs to the family of New World orioles, oropendolas and caciques, the Icteridae.

The Ecuadorian cacique is distributed over Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in South America. The cacique species are non-migrant resident birds. These caciques are monotypic.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Ecuadorian Cacique Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri) is a slender cacique, measuring 19 to 23 cm in length and weighing 50 to 60 grams.

The Ecuadorian cacique has entirely black plumage. There may be a few yellow feathers on the rump. The tail is long.

The bill is long, pointed and whitish. The legs and feet are grayish. The irises are pale blue. There is a pale gray eye-ring. Their call is a loud "peek.. peek.. pio.. pio" sound.
Ecuadorian cacique - Cacicus sclateri
Ecuadorian cacique - Cacicus sclateri
Image by Alphonse Joseph Charles Dubois


Origin, geographical range and distribution

The Ecuadorian cacique species are distributed over southwest Colombia, western Ecuador and northern Peru in South America.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of the Ecuadorian cacique in Colombia is Riberas del Río Duda. The IBA of these species in Peru is Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria.

The IBA of these species in Ecuador are, Territorio Achuar, Arajuno-Alto Napo, Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno and Bajo Napo.

Ecosystem and habitat

The Ecuadorian cacique species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes between 0 to 550 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats include plantations, rural gardens and degraded forests.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of the cacique species include tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests, seasonal flood plain forests, tropical and subtropical swamps and foothill forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of the Ecuadorian cacique species consists mainly of invertebrates. Insects, caterpillars, beetles, ants, spiders, fruits and nectar are their primary food.

These species are mostly arboreal and moving through the tree canopy, glean insects from the foliage. Sometimes, they forage in pairs or in small family groups.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these Ecuadorian cacique species is during January in most of their breeding range. They are believed to be monogamous solitary breeders. Not much is known about their reproduction and breeding habits.

Migration and movement patterns

These species are non-migratory, sedentary birds.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements within their range for feeding and breeding.

Ecuadorian cacique - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Cacicus sclateri
  • Species author: (Dubois, 1887)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Agelaeus sclateri A. J. C. Dubois, 1887
  • Family: Icteridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Ecuadorian cacique, Chinese: 厄瓜多尔酋长鹂, French: Cassique d’Équateur, German: Trauerkassike, Spanish: Cacique ecuatoriano, Russian: Эквадорский чёрный кассик, Japanese: ヒメクロツリスドリ
  • Other names: Ecuadorian Black Cacique
  • Distribution:Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, fruits, nectar
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is reported to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be fairly common (Stotz et al. 1996). The generation length is 4.6 years. Its distribution size is about 323,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, deforestation, human activities in their range are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the species.

IUCN and CITES status

The Cacicus sclateri species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern (LC)".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Cacicus sclateri
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Icteridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Cacicus
Species:C. sclateri
Binomial name:Cacicus sclateri
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The Ecuadorian cacique (Cacicus sclateri) was earlier placed under the genus Archiplanus. The Cacicus sclateri is closely related to Selva cacique (Cacicus koepckeae).
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Ecuadorian cacique image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cacicus_sclateri_1888.jpg
Image author: Alphonse Joseph Charles Dubois | License: Public domain
Link to Creative Commons copyright licenses


Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Ecuadorian cacique - Cacicus sclateri.

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