Blue-winged warbler images

   ›      ›   Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) belongs to the family Parulidae under the order Passeriformes.

Blue-winged warbler taxonomy

The Parulidae is the family of New World warblers or wood-warblers. The family Parulidae was first described by Frank Alexander Wetmore (June 18, 1886 – December 7, 1978), an American ornithologist and avian paleontologist, in the year 1947.

The family Parulidae comprises seventeen genera, including genus Vermivora. The genus Vermivora comprises three species, viz., Vermivora bachmanii, Vermivora cyanoptera and Vermivora chrysoptera.

The genus Vermivora was first introduced by William John Swainson FLS, FRS (8 October 1789 – 6 December 1855), an English ornithologist, malacologist, conchologist and entomologist, in the year 1827.

The species Vermivora cyanoptera was first introduced by Storrs Lovejoy Olson, an American biologist and ornithologist and James Lauritz Reveal, a U.S. botanist, in the year 2009. The warbler species Vermivora cyanoptera is monotypic.

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Vermivora cyanoptera
Species:V. cyanoptera
Genus:Vermivora
Subfamily:-
Family:Parulidae
Order:Passeriformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
1.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Tom Murray


Vermivora cyanoptera
2.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Wwcsig

Vermivora cyanoptera
3.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Tommy P World

Vermivora cyanoptera
4.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Christopher Eliot

Vermivora cyanoptera
5.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by TonyCastro

Vermivora cyanoptera
6.Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Melissa McMasters

Vermivora cyanoptera
7.Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Steven Kersting

Vermivora cyanoptera
8.Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Big Dipper 2

Vermivora cyanoptera
9.Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by budgora
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1.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tmurray74/34437261785/ (cropped)
Author: Tom Murray | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 11/29/18
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blue-winged_Warbler.jpg (cropped)
Author: Wwcsig | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/29/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tommype5/14296018630/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Author: Tommy P World | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 11/29/18
4.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eliotc/14114548722/ (cropped)
Author: Christopher Eliot | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 11/29/18
5.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/ (cropped)
Author: TonyCastro | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 11/29/18
6.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cricketsblog/26372906640/ (cropped)
Author: Melissa McMasters | License: CC BY 2.0 as on 11/29/18
7.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/skersting/34642521996/
Author: Steven Kersting | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/29/18
8.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bigdipper22/26717976146/
Author: Big Dipper 2 | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/29/18
9.Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/53816456@N08/41221529320/in/photostream/
Author: budgora | License: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 as on 11/29/18
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Blue-winged warbler | American birds

   ›      ›   Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera

The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) belongs to the family of New World warblers, the Parulidae.

The blue-winged warbler is distributed in Canada, USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Caribbean Islands. These warbler species are fully migratory. These warblers are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Blue-winged Warbler Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) is a small warbler, measuring 10 to 12 cm in length and weighing 7 to 11 grams.

The male blue-winged warbler has bright yellow head, throat, breast and underparts. The nape, flanks and the upperparts are olive green. The wings and tail are pale grayish blue.

The wings have two white patches. There is a black eye stripe. The female is duller, with less yellow on the crown. The juveniles are olive green with pale grayish blue wings.

The bill is sharp, pointed and dark gray in color. The short legs and feet are flesh colored. The irises are blackish. There is a yellowish eye-ring. Their call is a series of buzzing notes and a sharp "chipp" sound.
American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
1.American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Wwcsig


American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
2.American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Tom Murray

American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
3.American birds - Blue-winged warbler - Vermivora cyanoptera
Image by Tommy P World

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The blue-winged warbler is distributed in southeast Canada, eastern USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and several Caribbean Islands.

Ecosystem and habitat

These warbler species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 100 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include temperate grasslands, temperate shrublands, edges of forests, clearings in forests and neglected fields with scrub growth.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these blue-winged warbler species consists mainly of invertebrates. Insects, insect larvae, caterpillars, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers and spiders are their primary food. They forage on the ground and in bushes.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these warbler species is from May to July in most of their breeding range. They are monogamous and solitary nesters. They nest on the ground or on low bushes, hidden from predators.

The nest is a cone-shaped cup, built with leaves, bark stripes and plant fibers. It is lined with feathers and fine rootlets. The clutch contains four to six eggs.

The female warbler incubates the eggs. The chicks hatch out after 10 days of incubation. The hatchlings are altricial, depending completely on parents for brooding, feeding and protection. They fledge after 10 days.

Migration and movement patterns

These blue-winged warbler species are fully migratory birds. The breeding populations occur in northeast USA and southeast Canada (Ontario and Quebec provinces). Populations under migration are found in southeast USA.

They leave breeding grounds during August to winter in southeastern USA, central America, Colombia and Caribbean islands. The return migration to the breeding grounds takes place in early summer.

Blue-winged warbler - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Vermivora cyanoptera
  • Species author: (Olson & Reveal, 2009)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Certhia cyanoptera Olson and Reveal, 2009
  • Family: Parulidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Blue-winged warbler, Chinese: 蓝翅虫森莺, French: Paruline à ailes bleues, German: Blauflügel-Waldsänger, Spanish: Reinita aliazul, Russian: Сосновая червеедка, Japanese: アオバネアメリカムシクイ
  • Other names: Blue-winged Warbler, Brewster's Warbler, Lawrence's Warbler
  • Distribution: Canada, USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Caribbean Islands
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, invertebrates, spiders
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is reported to be decreasing.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be fairly common to common. The generation length is 3.7 years. Its distribution size is about 2,040,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and trapping of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the warbler species.

IUCN and CITES status

The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Vermivora cyanoptera
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Parulidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Vermivora
Species:V. cyanoptera
Binomial name:Vermivora cyanoptera
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) is closely related to golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and forms two distinctive hybrids with V. chrysoptera.
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blue-winged_Warbler.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Wwcsig | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/29/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tmurray74/34437261785/ (cropped)
Image author: Tom Murray | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 11/29/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tommype5/14296018630/in/photostream/ (cropped)
Image author: Tommy P World | License: CC BY-NC 2.0 as on 11/29/18
Website for detailed description and information on distribution, habitat, behavior, feeding and breeding habits, migration and conservation status of beautiful birds with their images.


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Golden-winged cacique | American birds

   ›      ›   Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus

The golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) belongs to the family of cowbirds, oropendolas and caciques, the Icteridae.

The golden-winged cacique is distributed over Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and Brazil in South America. These cacique species have overall black plumage with bright yellow wing patch. These caciques are monotypic species.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Golden-winged Cacique Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
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Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) is a medium-sized cacique, measuring 19 to 21 cm in length and weighing 30 to 47 grams. The males are slightly larger.

The golden-winged cacique has overall slightly glossy, black plumage. There is a bright yellow patch on the folded wing and the lower rump. The tail is slightly notched. There is a small black crest on the crown.

The bill is conical, sharp and pale gray in color. The short legs and feet are blackish. The irises are blackish. There is a whitish eye-ring. Their call is a varying, low-pitched, musical sound.
South American bird - Image of Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
1.South American bird - Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
Image by Dario Sanches


South American bird - Image of Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
2.South American bird - Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
Image by Dario Sanches

South American bird - Image of Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
3.South American bird - Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus
Image by Lip Kee Yap

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The golden-winged cacique is distributed over Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and Brazil in South America.

Ecosystem and habitat

These golden-winged cacique species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 2000 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical dry forests, tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests and tropical and subtropical moist montane forests.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these golden-winged cacique species consists mainly of invertebrates. Insects, beetles, small vertebrates, fruits, berries and nectar are their primary food.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these species is from October to December in Argentina. They are monogamous and solitary nesters. Their nest is a long hanging basket. The nest is built by the female.

Migration and movement patterns

These cacique species are non-migratory, resident birds. The populations in higher altitudes may descent to lower altitudes in winter months.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. They may make local movements within their range for feeding and breeding.

Golden-winged cacique - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Cacicus chrysopterus
  • Species author: (Vigors, 1825)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Xanthornus Chrysopterus Vigors, 1825
  • Family: Icteridae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Golden-winged cacique, Chinese: 金翅酋长鹂, French: Cassique à épaulettes, German: Goldschulterkassike, Spanish: Cacique aliamarillo, Russian: Золотокрылый чёрный кассик, Japanese: キンバネツリスドリ
  • Other names: Golden-winged Cacique
  • Distribution: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Brazil
  • Diet and feeding habits: seeds, berries, insects, invertebrates, small vertebrates
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is reported to be stable.

In most of its range, this species is reported to be 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996). The generation length is 4.6 years. Its distribution size is about 2,980,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and trapping of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the cacique species.

IUCN and CITES status

The golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Cacicus chrysopterus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Icteridae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Cacicus
Species:C. chrysopterus
Binomial name:Cacicus chrysopterus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The golden-winged cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) is closely related to the solitary cacique (Cacicus solitarius).
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1.Golden-winged cacique image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cacicus_chrysopterus_-Reserva_Guainumbi,_Sao_Luiz_do_Paraitinga,_Sao_Paulo,_Brasil-8.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Dario Sanches | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 11/28/18
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TECEL%C3%83O_(_Cacicus_chrysopterus_).jpg (cropped)
Image author Dario Sanches | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 11/28/18
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cacicus_chrysopterus_-Argentina-8.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Lip Kee Yap | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 11/28/18
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Recently updated and current topic in South American birds: Golden-winged cacique - Cacicus chrysopterus with images.

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Black siskin | American birds

   ›      ›   Black siskin - Spinus atratus

The black siskin (Spinus atratus) belongs to the family of finches and siskins, the Fringillidae.

The black siskin is distributed over Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru in South America. These siskin species inhabit high-altitude grasslands and shrublands in central Andes Mountains. These siskins are monotypic.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Black Siskin Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The black siskin (Spinus atratus) is a small siskin, measuring 11 to 14 cm in length and weighing 15 to 17 grams.

The adult male black siskin has glossy blackish plumage. There is a yellow patch on the folded wing and a yellow wing-flash. The tail is notched. The base of the tail and lower belly are yellow. The female has blackish brown plumage.

The bill is conical and pale gray in color. The short legs and feet are grayish. The irises are blackish. There is a blackish eye-ring. Their call is a repeated, plaintive, twittering sound.
South American birds - Image of Black siskin - Spinus atratus
1.South American birds - Black siskin - Spinus atratus
Image by vil.sandi


South American birds - Image of Black siskin - Spinus atratus
2.South American birds - Black siskin - Spinus atratus
Image by vil.sandi

South American birds - Image of Black siskin - Spinus atratus
3.South American birds - Black siskin - Spinus atratus
Image by vil.sandi

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The black siskin is distributed in over Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru in South America. These siskin species inhabit high-altitude grasslands and shrublands in central Andes Mountains.

Ecosystem and habitat

These species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occurs in altitudes between 3500 to 4500 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these species include tropical and subtropical high-altitude grasslands, tropical and subtropical high-altitude shrublands, rocky terrain, inland cliffs and mountain peaks.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these species consists mainly of plant matter. Seeds of low-growing plants and bushes, berries and insects are their primary food. They forage on the ground and in low bush.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these black siskin appears to be during November and December. Their nest is a tightly woven basket. The clutch contains three whitish eggs.

Migration and movement patterns

These species are non-migratory, resident birds. The populations in higher altitudes may descent to lower altitudes in winter months.

Post breeding, the juveniles may disperse and establish in new locations within the range. Within their range they may make local movements for feeding and breeding

Black siskin - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Spinus atratus
  • Species author: Lafresnaye & D'Orbigny, 1837
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Carduelis atratus d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837
  • Family: Fringillidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Black siskin, Chinese: 黑金翅雀, French: Tarin noir, German: Schwarzzeisig, Spanish: Jilguero negro, Russian: Чёрная чечевица, Japanese: クロヒワ
  • Other names: Black Siskin
  • Distribution: Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru
  • Diet and feeding habits: seeds, berries, insects
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the black siskin (Spinus atratus) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is reported to be stable.

In most of its range, this siskin species is reported to be 'fairly common but patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996). The generation length is 4.2 years. Its distribution size is about 1,700,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion and trapping of adults and juveniles for pet-trade are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the siskin species.

IUCN and CITES status

The black siskin (Spinus atratus) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the black siskin (Spinus atratus).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Spinus atratus
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Fringillidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Spinus
Species:S. atratus
Binomial name:Spinus atratus
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The Spinus atratus is closely related to the yellow-rumped siskin (Spinus uropygialis).
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1.Black siskin image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vil_sandi/10946920153/
Image author: vil.sandi | License: CC BY-ND 2.0 as on 11/27/18
2.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vil_sandi/10946651565/
Image author: vil.sandi | License: CC BY-ND 2.0 as on 11/27/18
3.Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vil_sandi/10946825044/
Image author: vil.sandi | License: CC BY-ND 2.0 as on 11/27/18
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Sanderling images

   ›      ›   Sanderling - Calidris alba images
Taxonomic classification   < >   Images

The Sanderling (Calidris alba) belongs to the family Scolopacidae under the order Charadriiformes.

Sanderling taxonomy

The Scolopacidae is the family of sandpipers, curlews, snipes, sanderlings and turnstones.

The family Scolopacidae was first introduced by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (22 October 1783 – 18 September 1840), a zoologist, botanist, writer and polyglot, in the year 1815.

The family Scolopacidae comprises fifteen genera, including genus Calidris. The genus Calidris is the genus of knots and sanderlings. The genus Calidris comprises twenty-four species, including Calidris alba.

The genus Calidris was first described by Blasius Merrem (4 February 1761 – 23 February 1824), a German naturalist, zoologist, ornithologist, mathematician and herpetologist, in the year 1804.

The species Calidris alba was first described by Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811), a Prussian zoologist and botanist, in the year 1764.

The sanderling species Calidris alba is polytypic and comprises two subspecies.

Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Calidris alba
Species:C. alba
Genus:Calidris
Subfamily:-
Family:Scolopacidae
Order:Charadriiformes
Class:Aves
Phylum:Chordata
Kingdom:Animalia
Sanderling - Calidris alba
1.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hans Hillewaert


Calidris alba
2.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hansueli Krapf

Calidris alba
3.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hans Hillewaert

Calidris alba
4.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org/)

Calidris alba
5.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by JJ Harrison

Calidris alba
6.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Ianaré Sévi

Calidris alba
7.Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hansueli Krapf

Calidris alba
8.Calidris alba
Image by Ianaré Sévi

Calidris alba
9.Calidris alba
Image by Amada44
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1.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_(breeding_plumage).jpg (cropped)
Author: Hans Hillewaert | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 11/27/18
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-01-18_13-07-14_Spain_Canarias_Jand%C3%ADa.jpg (cropped)
Author: Hansueli Krapf | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_(adult_summer),_Sanibel_Island,_Florida.jpg (cropped)
Author: Hans Hillewaert | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
4.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sanderling_(Calidris_alba)_RWD3.jpg (cropped)
Author: Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org/) | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
5.Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_-_Laem_Phak_Bia.jpg (cropped)
Author: JJ Harrison | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
6.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_running_5.jpg (cropped)
Author: Ianaré Sévi | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
7.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-01-18_13-06-17_Spain_Canarias_Jand%C3%ADa.jpg (cropped)
Author: Hansueli Krapf | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
8.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_running_6.jpg (cropped)
Author: Ianaré Sévi | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
9.Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_-_6235.jpg (cropped)
Author: Amada44 | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
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Sanderling | American birds

   ›      ›   Sanderling - Calidris alba

The sanderling (Calidris alba) belongs to the family of knots, curlews and sanderlings, the Scolopacidae.

The sanderling is distributed in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Indian subcontinent and Australia. The sanderling species is fully migratory. This sanderling species is polytypic.

Overview & Quick Facts Description & Identification
Pictures of Sanderling Distribution & Range
Ecosystem & Habitat Diet & Feeding Behavior
Breeding Habits Migration & Movement Patterns
Conservation & Survival IUCN Status
Taxonomy & Classification Bird World

Appearance, physical description and identification

The sanderling (Calidris alba) is a medium-sized sanderling, measuring 20 to 25 cm in length and weighing 40 to 100 grams. The wingspan is 35 to 40 cm.

The adult breeding sanderling has mottled red-brown crown, throat, upper breast and upperparts. The face is reddish brown. There is a blurred lore. The entire belly and vent region is whitish.

There is varying levels of redness among the subspecies. The wintering birds have pale gray mottled upperparts and whitish underparts. The juveniles are pale gray and white.

The dark bill is short and thick. The short legs and feet are blackish. The irises are blackish. There is a grayish eye-ring. The sanderling call is a repeated, plaintive, nasal, piping sound.
Bird World - Image of Sanderling - Calidris alba
1.Bird World - Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hansueli Krapf


Bird World - Image of Sanderling - Calidris alba
2.Bird World - Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hans Hillewaert

Bird World - Image of Sanderling - Calidris alba
3.Bird World - Sanderling - Calidris alba
Image by Hans Hillewaert

Origin, geographical range and distribution

The sanderling is distributed in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Indian subcontinent and Australia and surrounding islands.

The nominate sanderling subspecies C. a. alba is distributed in extreme central and north Russia (Severnaya Zemlya Islands and Taymyr Peninsula), Svalbard (Norway), Greenland and extreme north Canada (Ellesmere Island).

This subspecies winters on west and south European coasts, coastal Africa, Coast of Arabian peninsula, coastal Indian subcontinent, southern Asian islands, Australia, New Zealand and some Pacific islands.

The sanderling subspecies C. a. rubida is distributed in northeast Russia (Lena Delta and New Siberian Islands), Alaska (USA) and parts of northern Canada. It winters in coastal north and south Americas and eastern coastal Asia.

The Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) of sanderling in USA are, Cape Hatteras National Seashore and Cape Lookout National Seashore. The IBA in Spain are, Costa da Morte and Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast.

The IBA of these species in United Kingdom are, Ribble and Alt Estuaries, The Wash, Swansea Bay - Blackpill and South Westray Coast. The IBA in South Africa are West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands.

The IBA of the sanderling in Mexico are, Ría Lagartos, Bay Santa María, Estero Cardonal, Delta of the River Colorado and Coastal hunedals of the North of the Peninsula of Yucatan.

Ecosystem and habitat

The sanderling species do not normally occur in forests. They normally occurs in altitudes between 0 to 200 meters.

The natural ecosystems and habitats of these sanderling species include tundra grasslands, tundra wetlands, tidal flats, shorelines, estuaries, tide pools, marine lakes and coastal freshwater lakes.

Diet and feeding behavior

The diet of these sanderling species consists mainly of invertebrates. Insects, larval insects, beetles, ants, termites, spiders, crabs, snails, worms, grass, seeds, moss and sedges are their primary food.

Reproduction and breeding habits

The breeding season of these sanderling species is during June and July in most of their breeding range. These birds are mostly monogamous; occasional polyandry is observed. They nest solitarily or in small groups.

The nesting sites are located in Arctic on barren, stony tundra, gentle slopes or level alluvial plains. The nest is a shallow depression on the bare ground. Sometimes the nest is lined with grass.

The nest is usually built by the female. The clutch contains four olive green eggs, with dark blotches. Both the sanderling parents incubate the eggs. The chicks hatch out after 24 days and fledge after 17 days.

Migration and movement patterns

These sanderling species are fully migratory birds. The breeding populations are found in Arctic and subarctic North America, Europe and Asia. They migrate to the wintering grounds in August and September.

These sanderling species return to the breeding grounds in early Arctic summer. They travel in stages through a few stop-over sites during their movements between breeding and wintering grounds.

Sanderling - Quick Facts

  • Scientific name: Calidris alba
  • Species author: (Pallas, 1764)
  • Synonyms/Protonym: Tringa alba Pallas, 1764
  • Family: Scolopacidae › Charadriiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Vernacular names: English: Sanderling, Chinese: 三趾滨鹬, French: Bécasseau sanderling, German: Sanderling, Spanish: Correlimos tridáctilo, Russian: Песчанка, Japanese: ミユビシギ
  • Other names: Sanderling, Ruddy Plover
  • Distribution: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa and Australia
  • Diet and feeding habits: insects, beetles, spiders, bees, crustaceans, molluscs, worms
  • IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)

Conservation and survival

The global population size of the sanderling (Calidris alba) is estimated at 620,000 to 700,000 individual birds (Wetlands International 2015). The overall population trend of the species is reported to be stable.

In most of its range, this sanderling species is reported to be uncommon to locally common. The generation length is 8.1 years. Its distribution size is about 13,600,000 sq.km.

Ecosystem degradation, ecosystem conversion, severe weather, climate change, pollution, sport hunting and susceptibility to avian influenza are the main threats that may endanger the survival of the sanderling species.

IUCN and CITES status

The sanderling (Calidris alba) species does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".

The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the sanderling (Calidris alba).
Taxonomy and scientific classification of Calidris alba
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae
Subfamily:-
Genus:Calidris
Species:C. alba
Binomial name:Calidris alba
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern
The two recognized subspecies of the sanderling (Calidris alba) are:
C. a. alba (Pallas, 1764) and
C. a. rubida (J. F. Gmelin, 1789).
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1.Sanderling image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-01-18_13-07-14_Spain_Canarias_Jand%C3%ADa.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Hansueli Krapf | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
2.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_(breeding_plumage).jpg (cropped)
Image author: Hans Hillewaert | License: CC BY-SA 4.0 as on 11/27/18
3.Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calidris_alba_(adult_summer),_Sanibel_Island,_Florida.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Hans Hillewaert | License: CC BY-SA 3.0 as on 11/27/18
Website for detailed description and information on distribution, habitat, behavior, feeding and breeding habits, migration and conservation status of beautiful birds with their images.


Recently updated and current topic in Bird World: Sanderling - Calidris alba.

Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.