Brown crake

   ›      ›   Brown crake - Zapornia akool.

The brown crake (Zapornia akool) is a water bird belonging to the crake family Rallidae. It is also known as brown bush-hen. These crake species are distributed in Southern and Eastern Asian countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southeast China and Vietnam. Previously these species were grouped under genus Amaurornis.

Taxonomy of Brown crake

  • Scientific Name: Zapornia akool
  • Common Name: Brown crake
  • French: Marouette akool; German: Braunbauch-Kielralle; Spanish: Gallineta akul
  • Other names: brown bush-hen; Amaurornis akool; Rallus Akool Sykes, 1832;
  • Family: Rallidae › Gruiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
  • Species author: (Sykes, 1832)
The two recognized Zapornia akool subspecies are: Z. a. akool (Sykes, 1832) and Z. a. coccineipes (Slater, 1891). Earlier Zapornia akool was placed under genus Rallus, Porzana or Amaurornis.


The brown crake species are small birds measuring 25 to 28 cm. The males are marginally larger and weigh 110 to 170 grams, whereas the females weigh 110 to 140 grams. The upper parts are brown in color. The throat region is whitish. The under parts are light brown to slaty color. The legs are long and are brownish gray. The crake call is a short plaintive note.
Birds of India - Zapornia akool
Birds of India - Brown crake - Zapornia akool
Indian birds - Zapornia akool
Birds of India - Brown crake - Zapornia akool
Birds of India - Zapornia akool
Indian birds - Brown crake - Zapornia akool


The brown crake species inhabit wetlands, marshes, dense swamps, reed beds and paddy fields.

Feeding habits

The crake feeds primarily on invertebrates, insects, worms, small frogs and mollusks. It also feeds on seeds, grass, shoots and berries.


The breeding season of these crake species lasts from March to August. The crake males are generally monogamous. The nest is built on the ground with grass, sticks and leaves, among dense vegetation. The clutch may contain up to ten eggs.


The subspecies Z. a. akool are distributed in Northeast Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and west Myanmar. The subspecies Z. a. coccineipes are distributed in Southeast China and northeast Vietnam.

Movement and migration Patterns

These crake species are resident birds making local movements for feeding and shelter.

Conservation status and concerns

These crake global population size has not been quantified and population trend is not known. The destruction of wetlands and marshes and increased agricultural activities are the major threats to the survival of these crake species.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated these crake species and has listed them as of "Least Concern".

Biological classification of Zapornia akool
Species:Z. akool
Binomial name:Zapornia akool
Distribution:Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southeast China and Northeast Vietnam;
Feeding habits:feeds on invertebrates, insects, worms, small frogs, and mollusks; also feeds on seeds, grass, shoots and berries;
IUCN status listing:
Least Concern

Popular posts in Birds of India

1.Image source:
Image author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
2&3 Images source:,_Haryana_W_IMG_6374.jpg
Images Author: J.M.Garg | License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Current topic in Birds of India: Brown crake - Zapornia akool.
Contact State Tourism or travel agents for bird watching and wildlife tours.