The Andaman nightjar (Caprimulgus andamanicus) belongs to the family of nightjars, Caprimulgidae.
These nightjar species are endemic to Andaman Islands, India. The Andaman nightjars are insectivorous and nocturnal birds, hawking their prey in the air. Earlier these species were considered subspecies of large-tailed nightjar (Caprimulgus macrurus) and recently separated from C. macrurus. The Andaman nightjars are monotypic species.
Andaman nightjar - Overview
- Scientific name: Caprimulgus andamanicus
- Species author: Hume, 1873
- Synonyms/Protonym: Caprimulgus andamanicus A. O. Hume, 1873
- Family: Caprimulgidae › Caprimulgiformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
- Vernacular names: English: Andaman nightjar, Chinese: 安达曼夜鹰, French: Engoulevent des Andaman, German: Andamanen-Nachtschwalbe, Spanish: Chotacabras de Andamán, Russian: Andaman Nightjar, Japanese: Andaman Nightjar
- Other names: Andaman Nightjar
- Distribution: Endemic to Andaman Islands, India
- Diet and feeding habits: flying insects
- IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)
Appearance, physical description and identificationThe Andaman nightjar (Caprimulgus andamanicus) is a medium-sized nightjar measuring 23 to 27 cm in length.
These nightjar species have small feet which are of little use for walking and useful only for perching. They perch along a branch, rather than across it and are completely camouflaged in the daylight. The wings are long, narrow and pointed. The gray bill is short and there are bristles around the mouth. Their call is a continuous weak, short “tyuk tyuk” sound.
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Origin, geographical range and distributionThese nightjar species are endemic to the Andaman Islands, India. They are probably present in all the main islands and the smaller islands.
Ecosystem and habitatThese nightjar species have medium forest dependence. They inhabit tropical moist lowland and open forest ecosystems. These nightjar species inhabit tropical coastal forests, open teak forests, subtropical moist lowland, open country with scattered trees and tropical moist lowland.
Diet and feeding behaviorThe diet of these nightjar species is mostly large insects. Insects like grasshoppers, locusts, cicadas, moths, beetles and wasps are the primary food. They are mostly active in the late evening, early morning and at night.
Reproduction and breeding habitsThe breeding season of these nightjar species is from March to May in Andaman Islands. One or two eggs are laid directly on the bare ground.
Migration and movement patternsThese nightjar species are sedentary and resident birds in their range.
Conservation and survivalThe global population size of the Andaman nightjar (Caprimulgus andamanicus) has not been quantified. The overall population size of these species is considered to be stable. Throughout its range it is reported to be uncommon. The generation length is 5 years. Their distribution size is about 59,100 sq.km.
The Andaman nightjar (Caprimulgus andamanicus) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion. The forest degradation and deforestation going on in the Islands are the threats that may endanger the survival of these species.
IUCN and CITES statusThe IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the nightjar species and has listed it as of "Least Concern". CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘Not Evaluated’ for the Andaman nightjar (Caprimulgus andamanicus).
Current topic in Birds of India: Andaman nightjar - Caprimulgus andamanicus.