Black-headed gull images

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Taxonomic classification   <>   Images
The black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) belongs to the family Laridae under the order Charadriiformes.

The risk of Avian botulism in black-headed gull

The species Chroicocephalus ridibundus can be affected by Avian botulism, a paralytic disease caused by ingestion of the toxin Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNt) produced by the bacteria, Clostridium botulinum.

This bacteria is widespread in soil. For this bacteria to become active and produce the toxin, warm temperatures, a high protein source and an anaerobic environment is necessary. Different strains of bacteria produce different types of toxin and the Chroicocephalus ridibundus species are affected mostly by toxin type E.

The birds eating maggots from offal, carrion and dead fish and invertebrates are mostly likely to get affected. They do not normally get affected by eating the flesh of dead bird.

The maggots eating on the decaying flesh are not affected by the toxin and keep accumulating toxin. The birds eating these toxin-loaded maggots can develop botulism after eating as few as 3 or 4 maggots.
Taxonomic classification
Binomial name:Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Species:C. ridibundus

Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
1.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Bengt Nyman

Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
2.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by NoRud

Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
3.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Bartosz MORĄG

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
4.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Andreas Eichler

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
5.Black-headed gull - Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Image by Roland zh

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
6.Chroicocephalus ridibundus by Roman Andriiashik

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
7.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by Stuutje1979

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
8.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by PierreSelim

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
9.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by J.-H. Janßen

Chroicocephalus ridibundus
10.Chroicocephalus ridibundus Image by Andrew Thomas


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1.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Bengt Nyman | License: CC-BY-2.0 as on 6/5/17
2.Image source:,_Lachm%C3%B6ve(Chroicocephalus_ridibundus).JPG (cropped)
Author: NoRud | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
3.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Bartosz MORĄG | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
4.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Andreas Eichler | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
5.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Roland zh | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
6.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Roman Andriiashik | License: CC-BY-SA-4.0
7.Image source: (cropped)
Author: Stuutje1979 | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
8.Image source: (cropped)
Author: PierreSelim | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
9.Image source: (cropped)
Author: J.-H. Janßen | License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
10.Image source:,_Par_Beach,_Cornwall_-_UK,_August_10_2012._(15027636575).jpg (cropped)
Author: Andrew Thomas | License: CC BY-SA 2.0 as on 6/6/17
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